Cytokine Storm: When the Immune System Goes Awry

By Joel Fuhrman
Joel Fuhrman
Joel Fuhrman
Joel Fuhrman, M.D. is a board-certified family physician, seven-time New York Times best-selling author and internationally recognized expert on nutrition and natural healing. He specializes in preventing and reversing disease through nutritional methods.
February 10, 2022 Updated: February 10, 2022
Do you know what sparks a cytokine storm, and how it can wreak havoc on your health?  

A cytokine storm occurs when the body’s attempt to fight off an infection leads to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This response harms cells and tissues and can lead to organ damage and even death. It has been estimated that 28% deaths from Covid-19 have been due to cytokine storm. If you eat a poor diet or are overweight, the associated chronic inflammation may lead to a heightened risk of developing this dangerous immune response. Following a nutrient-dense, plant-rich Nutritarian diet strengthens your immune response so you won’t be a victim of a cytokine storm.

Let’s Take It From the Top. What Are Cytokines?

Cytokines are a category of proteins that play an important role in cell signaling. They are produced in response to an antigen and function as chemical messengers for regulating our immunity. They are produced by virtually all cells involved in our immune response.

So now we know that certain types of immune cells release cytokines as a form of communication with other cells. The cytokines are released to coordinate the proper immune response– for example, our body may need to recruit more immune cells to the site of an infection. There are both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Although we have uncovered a lot of information about our immune system, the response to infection involves a complex cascade of overlapping networks of cytokines. The response is so complex that scientists are still unraveling it.

What Happens When a Virus Attacks the Body?

When a virus infects a cell, it makes many copies of itself. Those copies are then released to infect more cells.

How Does Our Immune System Respond?

Pro-inflammatory cytokines allow migration of immune cells to the affected area. Our immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells recognize virus infected cells and kill them. In a typical scenario, virus-infected cells release interferons causing nearby cells to raise their anti-viral defenses. Certain cells start the process of making antibodies, and the innate immune system continues to attack the virus during the days to weeks it takes to produce antibodies.

What Is a Cytokine Storm?

A cytokine storm is an excessive immune response to an infection. It involves the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines that causes tissue and organ damage, and sometimes organ failure and death. The inflammation starts as a localized response to infection (such as in the lungs), but once it becomes uncontrolled it may spread through the body via circulating blood.

What Is the Role of Diet and Body Weight?

A poor diet and excess weight create low-grade chronic inflammation that leaves the body more vulnerable to cytokine storm and causes our immune response to misbehave. A Nutritarian eating style supplies the vital micronutrients and phytochemicals to prevent inflammation, preserve normal immune function, and protect us against this excessive reaction, called cytokine storm. Only a properly nourished immune system can react quickly, appropriately to prevent viral replication and invasion and resolve infection without over-reacting.

Obesity creates a pro-inflammatory environment where the signals that limit or resolve inflammation are impaired and immune function is compromised.3 The effects of obesity and poor diet-induced chronic inflammation on our immune defenses is a reminder that everything in the body is connected. The same habits that are dangerous for cardiovascular health are dangerous for immune health. Maintaining good insulin sensitivity and a healthy weight are important for all aspects of health. Being susceptible to serious illness and cytokine storm from infection depends on the overall health of the person. You can’t buy good health; you have to earn it. 

Republished from


The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention.

Into the eye of the cytokine storm.

Impact of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Immunity.