Metacognition Can Improve the ‘Cognition Crisis’

Thinking about thinking gives us the ability to develop a tool kit for our mind
By Brendan Conway-Smith
Brendan Conway-Smith
Brendan Conway-Smith
November 18, 2021 Updated: November 18, 2021

In these times of virtual meet-ups, negative news overload, and widespread uncertainty, it’s fair to say that it has been a tough time for our brains. If you’ve been feeling mentally subpar, you may be floating around the edges or caught in the middle of the “cognition crisis.” And don’t worry, you’re not alone.

Our world is facing a global mental health crisis, one that’s unique to modern times. Neuroscientist and neurologist Adam Gazzaley has called this a problem of “ancient brains in a high-tech world.”

Our brains have adapted for a very different environment, and our biological instincts are struggling to keep pace with a sea of information, artificial stimulation, and smartphone pings. This has contributed to a worldwide surge in anxiety, depression, addiction, and other cognitive issues.

As is often the case, technology comes first and society adapts second. We’re learning that surviving and thriving in the modern world requires a better understanding of our mind. This need for “cognition about cognition” brings us to the science of metacognition.

What is Metacognition?

Metacognition is a fancy word for what we all know and do hundreds of times each day. Have you ever tried to focus your attention, attempted to regulate an emotion, or felt distracted and made the decision to put away your phone? Each is an example of recognizing a mental state and trying to control it.

Metacognition involves the scientific study of how the mind can be aware of and control its own activity. Understanding how the mind works gives us insight into how we can use it better—an instructional how-to guide tailored to our personal psyches.

We all engage with our immune systems each day. We have a vague understanding of why we should wash our hands, wipe the kitchen counter, and wear a mask while chatting with people indoors. Yet the science of immunology has given us a deeper understanding of our personal immune system and we can, in turn, use this knowledge to combat a global pandemic.

In a similar sense, the science of metacognition offers a more profound knowledge of how the mind can understand and control its own processes. It’s through this growing body of research that we hope to develop the tools to overcome our present mental health crisis.

The Quiet Growth of Metacognitive Research

A unique side effect of modern technology is that apps, games, social media, and online content can hijack the learning pathways of the human brain. As a result, we’re increasingly captive to compulsive behaviors, attention issues, and emotional problems.

The pandemic has poured gasoline on this crisis. It has forced many people into social isolation and contributed to an even greater reliance on devices for social interaction and entertainment.

This has added to the global tsunami of debilitating mental health issues, affecting more than 500 million people, with a financial toll in the trillions.

But there’s good news: the quiet growth of metacognitive research.

Decades of empirical studies have shown that metacognition is effective at decreasing addictive behaviors and improving emotional well-being. Metacognitive training has demonstrated significant benefits in therapy, education,  and even business. Particularly effective are the tools for helping people engage with their own thoughts and emotions in cognitive behavioral therapy.

Metacognition is a fuzzy concept. One handy metaphor is to think of the brain as having both software and hardware. The software includes our thoughts, feelings, and conversations with others, while the hardware includes the neurons and connections between them. We’re only beginning to understand how that software and hardware interact. So, when something goes wrong in our brain, we’re uncertain of how to fix it. Fortunately, progress has been made at clarifying this subject using computation.

The Successes of Metacognitive Therapy

Computer simulations of cognition are a large focus of the Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University, where I work as a researcher while pursuing a doctoral degree in cognitive science. The theme of my research is the use of computational modeling to clarify metacognition. Metacognitive strategies can be thought of as a kind of mental software that can help to improve our cognitive functioning.

From my experience, it’s worth looking at the successes of metacognitive therapy. It’s unique in the sense that it involves the development of beneficial metacognitive beliefs. In many cases, it has shown to be more effective than cognitive behavioral therapy, another dominant approach taken by therapists.

It can be helpful for someone to believe that “I can direct my thoughts and emotions, and it’s beneficial for me.” Believing in this possibility is a necessary precursor to action. Metacognitive therapy focuses on building this foundation, and it’s from this firm grounding that people can reach for the specific tools of metacognition.

We’re already aware of many of these tools. And yet, our practical minds require evidence before committing to them. The improving of attention through mental training or meditation practice works. Likewise, the strategies offered by cognitive behavioral therapy are among the most effective for learning emotional regulation. Particularly useful is the practice of “detached mindfulness” for treating depression and anxietyMemory strategies have also been shown to be productive, including the famous mind palace technique.

It’s Time We Take Care of Our Minds

Overcoming the cognition crisis partly depends on getting around our mind’s automatic pleasure-seeking. Internally, we can avoid falling into the trap of instant gratification by being mindful of the information and entertainment that we consume. Externally, we can craft a physical environment that improves our efficiency and mental welfare. Distraction blocking software offers just one example of how to do this.

We exercise, control what we eat, and buy ergonomic desk chairs to take care of our bodies—it’s long past time we similarly take the same care of our minds. There are so many evidence-based actions we can take to design a personalized toolkit of mental habits and strategies. Doing so will allow us to be more deliberate with our thoughts, attention, and emotions, which can then improve every aspect of our lives.

Just as human health depends on mastering our own physical systems, the future of cognition depends on understanding and controlling our own psychological states. Solving the cognition crisis requires that we get smart about our own minds, and there’s never been a more vital time to do that.

 is a doctoral degree candidate and cognitive science contract instructor at Carleton University in Canada. This article was originally published on The Conversation.