The woman and her husband left Victoria on June 1, travelled through NSW and crossed into Queensland at Goondiwindi on June 5.
The couple has since travelled to various locations, including the Sunshine Coast.
Health Minister Yvette D’Ath said the woman, 44, returned a positive coronavirus test on Tuesday and that was confirmed on Wednesday.
She had been staying with family in Caloundra.
Chief Health Officer Jeannette Young said the woman was being interviewed and she did not know why the pair left Victoria, which has been in lockdown due to local transmission in the community there.
This comes just weeks before the state’s public health emergency declaration was due to end on June 29 (pdf).
The public health emergency was first declared in Queensland on Jan. 29, 2020, in response to the COVID-19 virus outbreak.
The public health emergency grants the chief health officer power to issue Public Health Directions to assist in containing, or to respond to, the spread of COVID-19 within the community.
The powers have been extended six times, lasting over a year.
By Tracey Ferrier. Epoch Times reporter Caden Pearson contributed to this report.