The Epoch Times is serializing a translation from the Chinese of a new book, How the Specter of Communism Is Ruling Our World, by the editorial team of the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party. NOTE: This chapter was updated with content edits and end notes at 10:18 p.m. on March 5, 2019.
Table of Contents
3. ‘Unrestricted Warfare’ With Chinese Communist Characteristics
a. The CCP Promotes Party Culture Worldwide
b. United Front Work Aims to Disintegrate the Free World From Within
c. Unrestricted Economic Warfare Is the CCP’s Heavy Weaponry
d. The CCP Uses the Masses for Espionage
e. Unrestricted Warfare Takes Many Forms
4. The ‘China Model’ and Its Destructive Impact
5. Lessons Learned and the Way Out
a. The Policy of Appeasement Was a Grave Mistake
b. Why Did the West Get China Wrong?
c. What Is the Way Out?
3. ‘Unrestricted Warfare’ With Chinese Communist Characteristics
In the process of realizing its global ambitions, the CCP recognizes no moral limitations and obeys no laws. As discussed in the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, the history of the CCP’s founding is a process of gradually perfecting the evilness found through history, both in China and around the world, including the Party’s nine inherited traits: “evil, deceit, incitement, unleashing the scum of society, espionage, robbery, fighting, elimination, and control.” These traits are seen everywhere through the CCP’s process of global expansion, and the Party has continually enhanced and strengthened its techniques and their malignancy. The CCP’s “unrestricted warfare” is a concentrated expression of these evil traits and an important part of its success.
The idea of unrestricted warfare has always run through the CCP’s military practices. In 1999, two Chinese colonels officially used the term “unrestricted warfare” in their theoretical military work. As the name implies, unrestricted warfare has these characteristics: “a war beyond all boundaries and limits,” “forcing the enemy to accept one’s own interests by all means, including methods of force and non-force, military and non-military, killing and non-killing.” “The means are all-inclusive, information is omnipresent, the battlefield is everywhere” — “beyond all political, historical, cultural, and moral restraints.”
Unrestricted warfare means that “all weapons and technologies can be used at will; it means that all the boundaries between the worlds of war and non-war, military and non-military are broken.” It utilizes methods that span nations and any particular sphere of activity. Finance, trade, the media, international law, outer space, and more are all potential battlefields. Weapons include hacking, terrorism, biochemical warfare, ecological warfare, atomic warfare, electronic warfare, drugs, intelligence, smuggling, psychological warfare, ideology, sanctions, and so on.
The authors of Unrestricted Warfare believe that “the generalization of war” is the inevitable direction of the future and that every field must be militarized. They believe that a large number of nonmilitary personnel who do not wear military uniforms are the key to unrestricted warfare. The government must quickly prepare for combat in all invisible fields of war.
Many people refer to various professional or social environments as “battlefields” by way of metaphor, but for the CCP, it means war in a very real sense. All fields are battlefields because the CCP is in a state of war at all times, and everyone is a combatant. All conflicts are regarded as struggles of life and death. Slight problems are magnified to be questions of principle or ideology, and the whole country is mobilized as if in war to meet the CCP’s goals.
In the 1940s, during the Chinese Civil War, the CCP used economic warfare to harm the economy of the Nationalist government (Kuomintang) of the Republic of China and make it collapse. The Party used espionage to obtain the Kuomintang’s military plans even before the KMT’s own troops received them, and used numerous conspiracies while communist armies fought on the battlefield. The CCP still uses these unrestricted means today, yet on an even larger and broader scale. Unrestricted warfare means breaking all conventional rules and moral restraints. This leaves most Westerners, Western governments, and companies unable to understand how the CCP acts, much less compete with it.
The CCP implements unrestricted warfare in numerous fields, using many seemingly mundane means to achieve its goals:
- Exporting Party culture and lies to the world through foreign propaganda
- Controlling global media and carrying out ideological unrestricted warfare
- Using fame, honey traps, human relationships, bribery, and despotic power to unite the leaders of the United Nations, important political figures of various countries, experts in think tanks and academic circles, tycoons, and influential people from all walks of life to cultivate friendships to support the CCP and help it through crises
- Supporting, inciting, and allying with rogue regimes to distract the United States and Western governments
- Using trade diplomacy to make free countries compete against one another, with the market of more than one billion Chinese as bait
- Deepening economic integration and interdependency to tie up other countries
- Violating WTO trade rules
- Making false reform commitments to accumulate trade surplus and foreign exchange reserves
- Using the fruits of capitalism to fatten the body of socialism
- Using the market, foreign exchange, and financial resources as weapons to suppress human rights through economic unrestricted warfare and to force other countries to abandon moral responsibility and universal values
- Forcing Chinese working abroad in private enterprises to steal information from developed countries
- Making hostages of China’s citizens and those of other countries
a. The CCP Promotes Party Culture Worldwide
When a branch of China’s state-run broadcaster was established in London, nearly six thousand people applied for ninety positions that required reporting news from China’s perspective. The CCP encountered an enviable problem: too many applicants. People’s eagerness to work for the CCP’s mouthpiece reflects the decline of the Western media industry and the threat that the CCP’s foreign propaganda poses to the world.
The World’s Largest Propaganda Machine
Mao Zedong once demanded that Xinhua News Agency “control the earth and let the whole world hear our voices.” The CCP is now able to achieve what it could not achieve in the past.
After the 2008 financial crisis, Western media faced their own financial and business crises. The CCP seized the opportunity to deploy its “great external propaganda” campaign. The People’s Daily, China Daily, Xinhua News Agency, China Central Television (CCTV), China Radio International (CRI), and other CCP mouthpieces set up newspaper boxes, radio stations, and television stations around the world.
Chang Ping, former news director of the major Chinese newspaper Southern Weekend, said that since 2009, the Chinese regime allocated 45 billion yuan (US$6.52 billion) to the “national strategy for external propaganda in public relations and publicity.” According to Chinese media sources, the 45 billion yuan was only a small part of the total expenditure that had been publicized. BBC estimated in 2016 that the CCP spends $10 billion (US$1.45 billion) a year on propaganda. In March 2018, the CCP integrated CCTV, CRI, and China National Radio to establish the China Media Group, also called Voice of China, led by the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. It has become the largest propaganda machine in the world.
Xinhua rented a giant billboard in Times Square in New York City to advertise the Communist Party. In 2016, the CCP changed the name of CCTV overseas to CGTN (China Global Television Network).
The CCP’s foreign propaganda attempts to advance with the times. Overseas stations implement a localization strategy, recruiting mainly local reporters and presenters. A photo of Xi Jinping’s video interview with CCTV stationed in the United States shows that 90 percent of the journalists are not Chinese. The content of the programs is transferred from China to foreign countries, and the reporters are hired locally. China’s state-run media thus produces local packaging in the target country — using local faces and voices, but spouting the Communist Party’s thinking and conflating the CCP with China. It uses locals abroad to spread the CCP’s stories and the CCP’s voice — not China’s true stories and not the voice of the Chinese people.
This is the character of the CCP’s external propaganda push. The CCP also provides scholarships to younger generations of international journalists, including in the areas of food and education, so they can get trained or study in China, and at the same time be instilled with the CCP’s view of journalism.
Along with the economic colonization of Africa, CCP media has also reached all corners of Africa. The China-based television and media group StarTimes Media Group is now operating in thirty countries on the African continent and claims to be “the fastest growing and most influential digital TV operator in Africa.” A taxi driver in Uganda said, “More and more Africans understand Chinese society by watching contemporary Chinese TV dramas.”
CCP propaganda has largely been unsuccessful due to a lack of credibility. However, making foreign media the spokesperson of the CCP’s media, ruthlessly attacking the media and individuals who criticize the CCP, and forcing everyone to support the CCP are all part of the recipe of the CCP’s external propaganda campaign.
Turning Media All Over the World Into Xinhua News Agency
In 2015, the foreign ministers of ten countries condemned the CCP for building artificial islands in the controversial South China Sea. At this time, a radio station in the Western suburbs of Washington, D.C., sounded a different note. Not only did it not mention the CCP’s reclamation activities, but it claimed that external forces had attempted to fabricate the facts and aggravate tensions in the South China Sea. This station, called WCRW, voices a great deal of content expressing the position of the CCP — and curiously, it runs no advertising. Its only customer is a Los Angeles company, G&E Studio Inc., itself 60 percent controlled by China Radio International (CRI) in Beijing. G&E has at least fifteen similar stations running in the United States, covering not only Washington, D.C., but also Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, Atlanta, Philadelphia, Houston, Honolulu, Portland, and Vancouver, among others.
The Chinese Communist Party’s mouthpiece, China Radio International (CRI), relies on a local company registered under the name of a Chinese-American. With controlling shares, it uses local U.S. radio stations to promote CCP propaganda. The biggest benefit of this operation, and the apparent reason for it, is to conceal the role of the CCP. In order to maximally mislead the audience, listeners are made to feel that Americans themselves are expressing their support for the CCP.
In 2015, CRI ran thirty-three such stations in at least fourteen countries. By 2018, CRI had fifty-eight stations in thirty-five countries. Because the control and operations are carried out through the use of local Chinese companies, it seems that democratic countries are helpless to do anything about the situation legally, although many people are unhappy with the Party’s hidden propaganda. The CCP’s external propaganda push has taken advantage of the loopholes in democratic societies. In the name of democracy, the CCP advocates for dictatorship and attempts to manipulate the audience into adopting its views by exploiting loopholes in the laws of free societies. Thus, in the name of democracy, it aims at destroying democracy.
The China Daily‘s inserts, which in Chinese are summed up with the phrase “making a voyage on a borrowed ship,” are another important part of the CCP’s external propaganda campaign. China Daily publishes a Chinese news insert in The Washington Post and uses a layout style that can give readers the impression that it’s The Washington Post’s content. In addition to The Washington Post, the CCP has struck similar deals with over thirty newspapers, including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Daily Telegraph, and Le Figaro. The word “advertising” on the insert is placed in an inconspicuous location, and readers can easily mistake the material for the newspapers’ own content.
On September 23, 2018, the China Daily also inserted four pages of advertisements that looked like ordinary news and commentary in the local Iowa newspaper Des Moines Register. The material attacked the U.S. president, and some called it an attempt to influence the midterm elections.
The Communist Party excels in controlling overseas Chinese media. Through coercion and enticement, the CCP has recruited a large number of Chinese-language media, including some founded by Taiwanese with a previously strong tradition of anti-communism. The CCP-sponsored World Chinese Media Forum is used as a platform to communicate the party’s instructions to Chinese media around the world. On September 10, 2017, the Ninth World Chinese Media Forum was held in Fuzhou. More than 460 overseas Chinese media executives from over sixty countries and regions on five continents attended the meeting.
An example of the impact of this media-control work can be found in the reporting of a California-based Chinese-language media outlet that amplifies CCP propaganda in the Western press. During the CCP’s Nineteenth National Congress, this media outlet’s lengthy reports were almost identical to those published by official Party media.
During the Umbrella Movement protests in Hong Kong in 2014, the Overseas Chinese Media Association controlled by the CCP, with more than 160 media members, urgently organized 142 pro-China media outlets in Asia, Europe, Africa, the United States, and Australia to publish the “Safeguarding Hong Kong Declaration” supporting the CCP’s perspective. The extent and efficacy of the regime’s media penetration overseas has surprised the outside world.
Suppressing opposing voices is another aspect of CCP overseas propaganda operations. The Party threatens journalists who expose them with visa denials and other forms of harassment, leading them to self-censor. The result is that there are few global media corporations that take a completely independent stance on the CCP without regard to consequences imposed by the regime.
There are several ways a scoundrel might make others view him in a more positive light. One way would be to start from within, abandon evil, become good, and stop being a scoundrel. Other people would then over time naturally come to recognize the transformation. The second way would be to begin exerting pressure on others, trying to brainwash them into not recognizing the scoundrel for what he is. Finally, a scoundrel might even mount the most audacious plan, and attempt to use manipulation, lies, gaslighting, and brainwashing to turn everyone else into scoundrels too. This would offer the greatest protection.
The CCP has used both the second and third methods simultaneously over decades. It employs a variety of large-scale propaganda activities to target foreigners, changing the minds of people to make them think that the CCP is no scoundrel at all. In some cases it’s even able to pull them into the mire, turning them into scoundrels along with the Party. Through extensive investments and shrewd operations, the Party has now established a worldwide system for creating alliances, isolating enemies, and turning neutrals into sympathizers or scoundrels.
Brainwashing Through Culture, Literature, and Art
Cultural brainwashing is an important tool for the CCP’s destruction of traditional Chinese culture. In recent years, the Party has advertised its commitment to restoring traditional culture, but as discussed in previous chapters of this book, this wave of supposed restoration of traditional culture has in fact left out the soul of tradition, replacing it with a fake version infused with deviant Party culture. This has not only deceived the world, but has also further devastated traditional culture.
On top of that, in order to further influence the world, one of the key elements of the Party’s external propaganda is to export so-called traditional Chinese culture as defined by the CCP, and to use traditional Chinese customs and practices to whitewash the CCP. This is another form of perception manipulation, or brainwashing. A typical example of this project is the Confucius Institute.
According to incomplete statistics, as of the end of 2017, the CCP had established 525 Confucius Institutes (targeting colleges and universities) in 146 countries and opened 1,113 Confucius Classrooms (targeting elementary and secondary schools). The Confucius Institute’s funds come from Hanban, which is affiliated with the CCP’s United Front Work Department (UFWD). The use of funds is supervised by personnel from the CCP’s embassies and consulates. Confucius Institutes subvert important academic principles of autonomy and freedom of inquiry, aim to promote the CCP’s version of events, distort the history of China, and omit the CCP’s appalling human rights record. In some Confucius Institute classrooms, quotations of Mao Zedong are hung on the wall. On the surface, Confucius Institutes claim to teach Chinese culture, but in fact they promote communist doctrine and transmit Party culture.
In addition to offering cultural and language courses, Confucius Institutes also distort history and even organize protests against activities the CCP believes threaten its rule. For example, speakers have been invited who repeated CCP lies about Tibet. Others claimed the Korean War was triggered because the U.S.military bombed Chinese villages, and that the Party was forced to send troops.[18
The U.S. Government’s National Defense Authorization Act of 2019, adopted in 2018, includes a strongly worded condemnation of the CCP’s attempts to influence U.S. public opinion, especially “media, cultural institutions, businesses, and academic and political groups.” The Act explicitly prohibits any National Defense funds from being given to Chinese-language departments in U.S. universities where there is a Confucius Institute.
From September to October 2011, Chinese authorities dispatched a song-and-dance troupe of three hundred performers to the Kennedy Center for the Arts in Washington, D.C., where the CCP staged its violent communist dance-drama Red Detachment of Women. In September 2016, in Los Angeles, a high-profile concert was held to commemorate the eightieth anniversary of the victory of the Red Army’s Long March. At the same time, in Australia, the performance Red Songs Concert to Commemorate the 40th Anniversary of Mao Zedong’s Death was held at the Sydney and Melbourne city halls. Local Chinese organizations in Australia protested and were finally able to stop the show. In 2017, the CCP sent the Red Detachment of Women performance to Australia, and in 2018, staged another violent communist dance-drama, Red Guards on Honghu Lake, in Sydney and Melbourne.
When it comes to information warfare, the CCP’s totalitarian regime occupies the high ground compared to democratic regimes: The Party blocks media from all democratic countries, but is able to insert its state-run media in democratic societies. The CCP prevents media from democratic countries from adding inserts to its media, but the CCP can insert its own content into the media from democratic societies, or it simply acquires them when convenient. CCP media serve the Party first and foremost, and Western journalists will never have executive roles. The CCP can, however, send its own undercover people into Western media or train foreigners into being mouthpiece reporters for the Party’s media. As long as the West still regards the CCP media as legitimate, the West will continue to lose in the information war. In 2018, the U.S. Department of Justice ordered Xinhua News Agency and China Global TV Network to register as foreign agents in the United States. It was a correct step, but is still far from sufficient — the problem is the lack of reciprocity in the first place.
The CCP’s foreign propaganda campaign is a major project aimed at globally reshaping the public’s views on the regime, and has met with some results. The CCP spreads its noxious ideology through this propaganda work, and has severely mislead people about the regime, its mode of operations, China’s human rights situation, and views on communism in general.
b. United Front Work Aims to Disintegrate the Free World From Within
On December 18, 2018, the CCP celebrated the fortieth anniversary of so-called reform and opening-up. It awarded the China Reform Friendship Medal to ten foreigners in an attempt to “thank the international community for supporting China’s reform.” These ten foreigners included Juan Antonio Samaranch, former president of the IOC, which granted China the right to host the 2008 Summer Olympics; and Robert Lawrence Kuhn, an American businessman who lent his name as author of a fawning biography of the former head of the CCP, Jiang Zemin. In fact, over the past few decades, countless politicians and celebrities have helped the CCP by playing different roles, depending on their motivations. Unfortunately, all have become victims of the CCP’s united-front tactics and thus accomplices.
In order to advance its goal of ultimately dominating the world, the CCP adopts any means necessary. This is a key part of the “united front” concept. Mao labeled the united front as one of the CCP’s “three magic treasures.” The civil war-era Kuomintang government was deceived by these tactics and suffered great losses as a result. Today’s Western governments have also been deceived and suffered losses. The good news is that Western society is beginning to wake up, and a number of investigative reports about the united front have recently been published.
The U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission (USCC), a Congressional commission, issued a report titled China’s Overseas United Front Work on Aug. 24, 2018, outlining the CCP’s overseas united front work structure and operations, including how the CCP uses various types of governmental and non-governmental organizations for its united-front work and what the implications have been to the United States and other Western countries. In recent years, the CCP has emphasized the importance of its united front work. The report states, “This elevation of the importance of United Front work has resulted in an increased number of UFWD officials assigned to top CCP and government posts, adding roughly 40,000 new UFWD cadres.”
Global Public Policy Institute (GPPI), a think tank in Europe, published a report in 2018 detailing the activities of CCP’s united front in Europe. On Nov. 29, 2018, the Hoover Institution at Stanford University also released a detailed report on the same topic. The report states: “China’s influence activities have moved beyond their traditional United Front focus on diaspora communities to target a far broader range of sectors in Western societies, ranging from think tanks, universities, and media to state, local, and national government institutions. China seeks to promote views sympathetic to the Chinese Government, policies, society, and culture; suppress alternative views; and co-opt key American players to support China’s foreign policy goals and economic interests.”
The CCP’s united front primarily targets the following actors in the West:
Politicians and Businesspeople
The USCC report says the CCP regards its united front work as an important tool to strengthen domestic and international support for the Party. This includes buying off Western politicians. Through persuasion, temptation, and relationship-building, the CCP maintains close ties with many high-level officials in Western governments. These politicians are treated as the PRC’s “state treasures,” given lavish gifts, and conferred titles such as “old friends of China.” Among them are current and former United Nations secretary generals, heads of states, high-ranking government officials, members of Congress, senior government advisers, heads of international organizations, famous academics and think-tank scholars, and media consortium tycoons. All these people in the united front network are expected to voice their support for the CCP at crucial moments.
Patrick Ho Chi-ping, a former Hong Kong secretary for Home Affairs, was indicted in the United States for bribery in December 2018. Ho had close ties to the CCP, and bribed high-ranking officials in two African nations on behalf of Chinese energy corporations in order to obtain mining rights. Ho also bribed two U.N. secretary generals, through whom the CCP was able to establish close ties to high-ranking officials in other nations.
U.S. court papers also document the corruption and espionage carried out by Chinese telecommunications giant ZTE. Two high-ranking telecom officials in Liberia testified that between 2005 and 2007, ZTE heavily bribed numerous officials in that country, including the president, government officials, and judges.
The CCP uses money and women to entrap political leaders and then use them as pawns for the regime’s ends. In a memorandum following the November 2014 midterm U.S. elections, CEFC, a CCP-linked company, outlined a plan to establish relationships and friendships with politicians. Ye Jianming, the now-disgraced chairman of CEFC China Energy Company Limited, has strong ties with European political leaders. He once asked a security advisor for a U.S. president whether he could persuade the U.S. army not to bomb Syria because he wanted to buy up oil fields there. Ye also boasted connections to senior officials at the Federal Reserve and the United Nations, as well as family members of U.S. government officials.
When deemed necessary, the CCP can form various temporary united fronts to isolate its enemies. For instance, the CCP has used the votes of developing nations whose officials it previously suborned to pass or block motions at the United Nations. Via proxies, it has disrupted U.S. efforts to stabilize the Middle East. In the meantime, it has been able to forge new economic alliances. In the recent U.S.-China trade war, the CCP sought to sow conflict between the United States and Europe with the aim of using the latter as part of another united front against the United States
Local politicians are also targets of the CCP’s united front work. These include community leaders, city council members, mayors, state senators, and others. The usual approach is to donate to local politicians through Chinese organizations or merchants, who are invited to visit China where they receive bribes. Their family businesses gets special treatment in China, and even their assistants are bribed. Cases of sexual entrapment, often involving blackmail, are known as “honey traps,” and the CCP is thought to use this tactic often.
Chen Yonglin, former officer at the Chinese Consulate in Sydney, who defected in 2005 to Australia, told The Epoch Times that the CCP’s United Front Work Department had infiltrated the Australian government and corrupted officials. Chen said: “The amount of private bribery for the officials far surpassed political donations. Especially those higher-ranking officials; the bribes were huge. … Another aspect of bribery is the all-expenses paid trips to China, where officials are treated as kings. This includes prostitution paid for by Chinese companies. Many officials changed their stances after returning from China.”
With its strong financial backing, the CCP has paid communist and leftist politicians around the world to become its agents in those nations in order to further spread communist ideology.
The CCP uses the same tactics on those in the financial sector and a number of industries. Business people and entrepreneurs are treated as kings and given business incentives. In return, they become the CCP’s voice for lobbying the government and influencing the country’s financial and economic policies. In the U.S.-China trade war, the CCP has had frequent contact with Wall Street tycoons. Many top financial companies and international corporations do business in China. In order to expand their business there, they hired numerous children of high-ranking Chinese officials, called “princelings,” and the latter are the Party’s eyes, ears, and voice in such companies.
Infiltrating Academic Circles and Think Tanks
Many think tanks in the West directly shape the country’s policy and strategy toward China; therefore, the CCP pays special attention to them. The report by the Hoover Institute states that the CCP pays attention to perspectives of both political parties in the United States and creates topics that are beneficial to the CCP. The CCP exerts control over think tanks via financial sponsorship. It has bribed, controlled, or influenced almost all think tanks related to China.
The Washington Post reports that some Chinese companies control American think tanks. For example, the Chinese tech giant Huawei not only poses a security threat to the United States, but also tries to influence think tanks in Washington, D.C., by providing them with financial support.
Huawei also sponsors over twenty universities in the U.K., including Cambridge University and Oxford University. Professor Anthony Glees, a British expert in national security, said: “This is about the electronic agenda being driven by the injection of Chinese money into British universities. That is a national security issue.” Huawei, through the Seeds for the Future program, attracted a large number of young talented engineers — a classic communist subversion tactic.
The CCP buys overseas scholars, especially China scholars, with money, status, and fame. Some such scholars then closely follow the CCP’s rhetoric, publishing books and articles to explain the CCP’s “peaceful rise,” the concepts of the “China dream” or the “China model.” The viewpoints of these scholars then indirectly influence the China policies of Western governments — precisely the CCP’s goal.
To make things worse, over the past several decades, Western humanities scholars and sociologists have been heavily influenced by strains of communist ideology. With a small amount of CCP influence, they can go from merely supporting leftist ideology to actually embracing communism.
Coercing and Using Overseas Chinese Leaders, Businessmen, and Students
The CCP has successfully exploited the patriotism of overseas Chinese students to create sympathy for CCP policies and ideology. To gain the support of overseas Chinese, the CCP provides them with financial support. It frequently uses the phrase “the love for one’s homeland, the friendship of kin” as part of its deliberate conflation of China and the CCP in order to deceive overseas Chinese. The Party also uses an extensive overseas network of organizations, supporters, and spies to marginalize and attack its opponents.
The CCP uses various pretexts to invite overseas Chinese to do business and invest in China. It gives overseas Chinese leaders special treatment when visiting the country, arranges overseas pro-CCP figures to meet with high-ranking officials, and has them all attend PRC national-day celebrations.
Zach Dorfman, senior fellow at Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, published a long investigative report in Politico revealing Chinese and Russian espionage activities in Silicon Valley, with particular focus on Chinese actors. The report examined Rose Pak, the San Francisco Chinese powerbroker, as an example. It noted that the CCP used Pak to have the Chinese Chamber of Commerce in San Francisco marginalize Falun Gong, Tibetan, pro-Taiwanese, and Uyghur groups, preventing them from participating in the Chinese New Year parade.
The USCC report also exposed how Chinese Student and Scholar Associations (CSSA) are controlled by the CCP. On their own website, some CSSA branches directly state that they were established by the local Chinese consulate or are its subsidiaries, while in other cases, the control is carried out clandestinely. These organizations receive orders from the Chinese consulates, preventing any dissonant voices from being aired. Consulate officials harass, intimidate, and monitor students who dissent from the CCP line.
CSSAs and those affiliated with them sometimes even conduct industrial and economic espionage. In 2005, France’s Le Monde reported that the CSSA at the University of Leuven, Belgium, was the CCP’s front-line spy group in the country. Sometimes such networks consist of several hundred spies working in various companies in Europe.
Infiltrating and Influencing the Movie and Entertainment Industries
In recent years, the CCP has increased efforts at infiltrating the U.S. entertainment industry. In 2012, Wanda Group spent US$2.6 billion to acquire AMC, the second-largest theater chain in the United States. Since then, it has acquired Legendary Entertainment for $3.5 billion, and Carmike, the fourth-largest theater chain in the United States, for $1.1 billion. In 2016, Ali Pictures acquired a stake in Steven Spielberg’s Amblin Partners, and will place a representative on the Amblin Partners board of directors to participate in major decision-making there.
One of the CCP’s main goals in infiltrating the entertainment industry is to have the world follow the CCP’s script — painting a positive image of the CCP and China’s so-called peaceful rise to conceal the regime’s tyrannical ambitions. At the same time, this image covers up how the exportation of Party culture has corrupted the world. From 1997 to 2013, China invested in only twelve Hollywood films out of the top one hundred highest-grossing movies. But in the ensuing five years, China invested in forty-one of Hollywood’s most popular movies.
Hollywood covets China’s rapidly growing movie market, and executives are well-aware that they’ll be excluded from it if they fail to toe the Party line. Thus, they set about ensuring they are in compliance with Chinese censorship. American movie stars who’ve taken a stand on the CCP are blocked from entering the country, or their films are excluded from the Chinese market. Hollywood star Richard Gere’s clear expression of his position on Tibet, for instance, not only led to his being denied access to China, but also limited his own career even in the United States. In order not to offend or provoke the CCP, film producers have declined to invest in his films. Other movie stars have been blacklisted for other transgressions.
Intimidating Overseas Dissidents
The CCP has used intimidation and incentives to influence Western scholars, especially China experts who are critical of the CCP. This has led many to willingly self-censor. Intimidation includes refusal to issue visas, which has the greatest impact on young scholars. For the sake of professional development, many voluntarily avoid human rights, Tibet issues, and other sensitive topics that might attract the Party’s ire.
Perry Link, a professor of East Asian Studies, was put on the blacklist for his scholarship on the Tiananmen Square massacre, which put the communist regime in an unfavorable light. His treatment subsequently turned into a lesson for young scholars as to what not to do.
In October 2017, Benedict Rogers, deputy chairman of the British Conservative Party’s Human Rights Commission and supporter of the Hong Kong Democratic Movement, went to Hong Kong for personal activities but was refused entry and repatriated at the Hong Kong airport.
The aforementioned report by the USCC also said that Chinese intelligence agents attempt to recruit ethnic minorities, including Uyghurs living abroad, to act as spies. Refusal may lead to persecution of their family in China. Uyghurs who have been threatened state that the purpose of such threats is not only to collect information about the Uyghur diaspora, but also to create discord and prevent them from effectively opposing the CCP.
c. Unrestricted Economic Warfare Is the CCP’s Heavy Weaponry
If external foreign propaganda, perception-management, and united front work are the Party’s forms of soft power, then its high-tech industry must become the Party’s hard power. In the 1950s, the CCP’s slogan was to “surpass the United Kingdom and catch up with the United States” — but it was a farce. Today, however, the same strategy has become a legitimate threat.
Since the 1980s, the CCP has implemented a series of strategic plans in science and technology, including the 863 Program (the National High-Tech R&D Program), Program 973 (National Program on Key Basic Research Projects), and Made in China 2025 (to transform China from a manufacturing country to a manufacturing power by 2025, taking the lead in big data, 5G, and the like). The strategy includes ambitious plans for artificial intelligence, in which China aims to be a world leader by 2030. The purpose is to upgrade China’s status as the world factory to an advanced manufacturing giant, thereby attaining global supremacy.
It’s not wrong for a nation to pursue industrial development. For a country to use state power to allocate resources to research and development in key industries is also legitimate. Why, then, is the CCP’s high-tech development strategy a threat to the West?
The most fundamental reason is that China under the Chinese communist regime is not a normal country. The purpose of the regime’s technological development is not so it can join the ranks of the world’s other high-tech countries or compete on equal footing with them. Its purpose is to use any means to eliminate opponents and take down Western economies — especially that of the United States — and thus be one step closer to dominating the world. The CCP’s development of its scientific and technological strength is for serving its communist ideology, and ultimately for having communism rule the world.
Technological innovation is the fruit of individual liberty in a capitalist society, which is in natural conflict with the totalitarian rule of communism. Researchers in mainland China are deprived of the freedom to use foreign search engines, let alone express their freedom in other ways. Thus it’s indeed difficult to make real breakthroughs in scientific and technological innovation given the CCP’s restrictions on thought and access to information.
To make up for this, the Party has used various underhanded means to steal Western technology and win over cutting-edge talent, and has also used unfair and extraordinary measures to undermine Western industry. The CCP has stolen technologies the West has spent decades and vast sums of money to develop. It assimilates and improves upon the stolen intellectual properties and then simply mass-produces them at little cost and dumps the products on the world, debilitating private Western enterprises and economies. Thus, the regime has been using its techniques of unrestricted warfare in its technological competition with the West.
The Trap of Trading Technology for Market Access
In recent years, China’s high-speed rail network has become almost like a business card for the country’s high-end manufacturing prowess, and the idea of “high-speed rail diplomacy” has developed. Chinese state media has called China’s work in this area legendary, given the short developmental period of only around ten years. But to Western companies, China’s high-speed rail buildup has been a nightmare of technology theft, endless traps, and what ultimately became small gains for huge losses.
Work on China’s high-speed rail project began in the early 1990s. By the end of 2005, the authorities abandoned the idea of developing the technology independently and turned to Western technology. The CCP’s goal was clear from the beginning: It planned to first acquire the technology, then manufacture it, and finally sell the same technology more cheaply on the global market.
The Chinese side requires that foreign manufacturers sign a technology-transfer contract with a Chinese domestic firm before bidding on construction contracts, or else they’re not allowed to enter bids. The Chinese authorities also established formal internal assessments called “technology-transfer-implementation evaluations,” which focus not on how well foreign businesses teach their systems, but on how well domestic companies learn them. If domestic enterprises don’t learn the technology, China doesn’t pay. The authorities also required that by the last batch of orders, local companies must produce 70 percent of the orders.
Because foreign companies felt China’s market was an opportunity not be missed, such terms didn’t prevent them from signing on. Japan’s Kawasaki Heavy Industries, France’s Alstom, Germany’s Siemens, and Canada’s Bombardier all submitted bids. Despite the promise of market access in exchange for technology transfer, no Western company was willing to transfer its core, most-valued technology. However, the CCP continued to play games with several of the companies in the hopes that at least one would relent and give up something of real value for the benefit of short-term interests. Sure enough, when it appeared that one company would get a chunk of the Chinese market in exchange for technology, the others began to fear being left out. Thus, several of them fell into the CCP’s trap, with the result that China was able to extract key technology from the above four high-speed rail companies.
The Chinese government has invested huge sums in the project, acting regardless of cost. China’s high-speed rail network subsequently entered a period of exponential development as Chinese firms built out the world’s most extensive high-speed rail system by mileage. In a few years, China rapidly assimilated Western technology, which was then turned into “independent intellectual property rights.” What really shocked Western companies was when China then began applying for high-speed rail patents abroad, with Chinese firms becoming fierce competitors against their former teachers on the international market. Because Chinese companies have accumulated a great deal of practical experience in this realm, and are afforded all the industrial advantages brought by large-scale production capacity and massive state financial backing, China’s high-speed rail industry possesses a competitive advantage against peers. It has become a key element of the Party’s One Belt, One Road project.
While foreign companies once dreamed of getting their share of the huge market for high-speed rail in China, they found instead that not only were they squeezed out of that market, but they also had created a tough international competitor. Yoshiyuki Kasai, an honorary chairman of the Central Japan Railway Company, said with distress: “The Shinkansen [Japanese bullet train] is the jewel of Japan. The technology transfer to China was a huge mistake.”
The CCP itself acknowledges that China’s success in high-speed rail was achieved by standing on the shoulders of giants. Indeed, its purpose from the beginning was to slay all other giants. The CCP has an explicit dual purpose: Its short-term goal is to use economic achievements to prove the legitimacy of its regime and to make economic and technological progress to maintain and excite nationalist sentiment and propaganda. But its long-term purpose is to prove that its communist system is superior to the capitalist system, so it unscrupulously steals technology and turns the power of the entire country to competing with capitalist free enterprise.
China’s tactics of promising market access in exchange for technology, coercing tech transfers, absorbing and improving foreign technology, having its own firms practice in the domestic market before advancing to the world, and dumping products globally to undercut competitors, have led Western companies to suffer immensely. Now some are beginning to reflect. Others, however, are drawn like a moth to a flame and are still willing to do business with the CCP for their immediate benefits. The CCP’s ambitions to acquire Western technology have never abated, and the Made in China 2025 program is the embodiment of this ambition.
In 2015, the Chinese government proposed the ten-year Made in China 2025 project, envisioning that by 2025, China would have transformed from a big manufacturing country to a manufacturing power, and that by 2035, the country’s manufacturing industry would surpass that of industrially advanced countries like Germany and Japan. By 2049, the CCP hopes it will lead innovation in key manufacturing sectors as global leaders in key technologies and industries. Using lofty words, the CCP regime has raised the status of its manufacturing sector to “the foundation of the nation” and “the instrument for rejuvenating the country.”
A Manufacturing Superpower Built on Theft
How did China boost its manufacturing and innovative potential in such a short period of time? It used the same old tricks: First, it coerced companies to transfer their technologies, as in the case with high-speed rail. Many Western corporations are willing to provide technology in exchange for access to the Chinese market, training their future competitors at the same time. Second, China demands the companies form joint ventures with its own firms, and supports Chinese companies and universities in collaborating with high-tech companies, so they can acquire such technologies. Third, the regime encourages its domestic firms to make acquisitions of overseas high-tech companies, directly investing in startups with key technologies, and establishing overseas research-and-development centers. Fourth, it induces leading foreign tech and scientific research institutes to set up R&D centers in China. Fifth, it uses targeted policies to bring in foreign technology experts.
Many startups in Silicon Valley need capital. China uses taxpayer money to invest in them in order to get its hands on new technologies, including rocket engines, sensors for autonomous navy ships, and 3D printers that manufacture flexible screens that could be used in fighter-plane cockpits. Ken Wilcox, chairman emeritus of Silicon Valley Bank, said in 2017 that within a six-month period, he was approached by three different Chinese state-owned enterprises about acting as their agent to buy technology on their behalf. Though he declined, he said: “In all three cases, they said they had a mandate from Beijing, and they had no idea what they wanted to buy. It was just any and all tech.”
In November 2018, the United States Trade Representative (USTR) published the findings of a Section 301 investigation. The report says that Danhua Capital (currently Digital Horizon Capital) uses China’s venture capital to help the Chinese government gain top technologies and intellectual property in the United States.
The above report by the U.S. government is open for the public to see. The killer weapon that China uses to realize its technological leap forward is the blatant theft of Western technology. China’s aptitude for industrial espionage far exceeds the scope of commercial spies in the past. In order to steal technology and secrets from the West, the regime mobilizes all available personnel and tactics — including espionage, hackers, international students, visiting scholars, Chinese and Taiwanese immigrants working in Western companies, and Westerners lured by monetary interests.
The CCP has always coveted the US F-35 stealth fighter jet. A Canadian permanent citizen, Su Bin from China, was sentenced to five years in prison for stealing F-35 secrets in 2016. Su worked with two hackers from the Chinese military, penetrating the computer systems of Lockheed Martin, the manufacturer, and exfiltrating secrets. The group also stole secrets related to the F-22 stealth fighter. Investigation found that Su’s group had also stolen secrets about Boeing’s C-17 strategic transport aircraft, and 630,000 files from Boeing’s system, totalling some 65 gigabytes of data. The PLA’s own J-20 stealth fighter exhibited in recent years is now very similar to the American F-22, and the smaller Chinese FC-31 is an imitation of Lockheed’s F-35.
Dr. David Smith, a Duke University metamaterials expert, invented a kind of invisibility cloak, an important material for stealth fighters, and the U.S. military invested millions in support of his research. In 2006, Chinese student Liu Ruopeng came to Smith’s lab. In the view of an FBI counterintelligence official, Liu had a specific mission — to obtain the secrets. In 2007, Liu took two former colleagues traveling at Chinese government expense to Smith’s lab, and worked on the invisibility cloak for a period of time. To Smith’s surprise, the same laboratory was later duplicated in China.
On December 20, 2018, the Department of Justice sued two Chinese citizens from the Chinese hacker organization APT 10, which has close ties with the CCP. According to the indictment, from 2006 to 2018, APT 10 carried out extensive hacking attacks, stealing massive amounts of information from more than forty-five organizations, including NASA and the Department of Energy. The information stolen involves medicines, biotechnology, finance, manufacturing, petroleum, and natural gas. The FBI Director Christopher Wray remarked: “China’s goal, simply put, is to replace the U.S. as the world’s leading superpower, and they’re using illegal methods to get there. They’re using an expanding set of non-traditional and illegal methods.”
China’s theft of technology and patents is hard to combat and prevent. Kathleen Puckett, a former U.S. counterintelligence officer in San Francisco, said that China puts all its efforts into espionage and gets everything for free.
China moralized, rationalized, normalized, and militarized its stealing spree. It launched a “war against everyone” to loot advanced technology from the West, using patriotism, racial sentiments, money, and prestige. Such appalling conduct is unprecedented historically.
Some have defended China’s activities by arguing that the theft can’t amount to all that much, since by stealing a bit here and there, Chinese firms don’t get the full picture of how technology is deployed and scaled. But it’s very dangerous to look at Chinese industrial espionage this way. Espionage in the electronic age is completely different from that in decades past, in which spies would take a few photos. China steals entire databases of technologies, and in many cases, scoops up not only the technology, but also the experts. With the power of the world factory that China has developed for decades and the R&D potential it has accumulated, the regime is truly able and willing to build a manufacturing superpower based on theft — and it is on course to do so.
The Thousand Talents Program: Espionage and Talent Attraction
From when China opened up in the 1970s until now, millions of Chinese students have studied overseas and have achieved great things. China seeks to recruit and use these talented individuals, invested in and trained by the West, to directly bring back to China the technology and economic information they’ve acquired. This aids the CCP’s ambitions in gaining global supremacy. Since 2008, multiple departments in China have initiated the Thousand Talents Program. On the surface, it’s about recruiting top Chinese talent overseas to return to China for full- or short-term positions. But the real goal behind the program is for state industry to get its hands on new technology and intellectual property from the West.
The FBI released a declassified document about these Chinese talent programs in September 2015. It concludes that recruiting target individuals can allow China to profit in three ways: gaining access to research and expertise in cutting-edge technology, benefiting from years of scientific research conducted in the United States and supported by U.S. government grants and private funding, and severely impacting the U.S. economy.
The National Institute of Health released a report on the Chinese talent programs on December 13, 2018, noting that foreign nationals transferred U.S. intellectual property to their native countries while on the U.S. government payroll. Their actions have unfairly impacted all U.S. academic institutions. M. Roy Wilson, one of the authors of the report and co-chair of the NIH Advisory Committee, said that a key qualification of becoming part of the Thousand Talents Program is having access to valuable intellectual property. He said that the problem was significant, not random, and that the severity of the intellectual property losses was impossible to ignore.
Peter Harrell, adjunct senior fellow in the energy, economics, and security program at the Center for a New American Security, said: “China is pursuing a whole-of-society approach to its technological capabilities. That includes purchasing innovative companies through overseas investments, requiring Western companies to transfer cutting-edge technologies to China as a condition of market access, providing vast state resources to finance domestic technological development, financing training for top Chinese students and researchers overseas, and paying a hefty premium to attract talent back to China.”
The Thousand Talents Program includes as its targets almost all Chinese students who have come to the United States since the 1980s and who find themselves with access to useful information for the regime’s industrial, technological, and economic development — potentially tens of thousands of individuals. The CCP is mobilizing the capacity of the entire country and population to conduct unrestricted warfare in its recruitment of talent and intellectual properties.
A Sinister, Total National System
In addition to outright stealing, China’s state support and subsidies are also an important means for the CCP to accomplish its ambitions. State support means that the regime can use huge sums of money to support key industries. Effectively, this is about using China’s national power to exert pressure on private businesses in the West. This poses an enormous, unique challenge to countries where leaders are democratically elected and leave business decisions to businesses themselves. It can be said that Western companies have lost before the game has even begun. China’s subsidies — ultimately taken out of the pocket of the unconsenting taxpayer — mean that Chinese manufacturers can ignore the real costs, making them unstoppable predators in international markets.
The solar cell industry is a classic example of the Chinese regime’s subsidies. Ten years ago, there were no Chinese companies among the top ten solar-cell manufacturers, but now there are six from China, including the top two. The green energy industry was heavily promoted during President Obama’s first term, but before long, dozens of solar-panel makers were filing for bankruptcy or had to cut back their businesses in the face of unrelenting competition from China, which undermined the enthusiasm for clean energy at the time. The damage was caused by China’s dumping products on the world market, which was enabled by the regime’s subsidies for its domestic solar industry.
In Western countries, states also fund key projects, including those on the cutting edge of technological development. The prototype of the internet, for instance, was first developed by the U.S. Department of Defense. However, in the West, government participation at the national level is limited. Once a technology is commercialized, private companies are free to act as they will. For example, NASA disseminated its advanced research results to industry through its Technology Transfer Program. Many of its software projects simply put their source code on the Web as open source. In contrast, the CCP directly uses the power of the state to commercialize high-tech, which is equivalent to using a “China Inc.” to compete against individual Western firms.
The Made in China 2025 project is, of course, inseparable from state subsidies and state industrial planning. If the CCP continues on its current track, the story of the solar panels will play out again in other industries, and Chinese products will become global job-killers. Through unrestricted economic and technological warfare, the CCP has successfully led many Western companies, including multinational corporations, into a trap. They handed over capital and advanced technology, but weren’t able to compete fairly in the Chinese market, and instead helped create their own state-backed competitors. The CCP used them as pawns to achieve its ambitions.
d. The CCP Uses the Masses for Espionage
The CCP regards information as simply another weapon in its arsenal. Regardless of the field, whether pertaining to the state, private enterprise, or individual endeavors, all forms of information are seen as fair game for the fulfillment of the regime’s strategic ambitions.
The CCP has also used legislation to force all Chinese people into participating in its unrestricted warfare. The National Intelligence Law of the People’s Republic of China, passed by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, clearly states that “national intelligence agencies may require relevant agencies, organizations, and citizens to provide necessary support, assistance and cooperation.” This means that any Chinese citizen can be coerced by the CCP to collect intelligence and become a spy. This form of intelligence collection has never been seen before.
On December 12, 2018, the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing about the CCP’s “non-traditional espionage activities.” Bill Priestap, deputy director of the FBI counterintelligence department, revealed the characteristics of these activities: They sometimes play by the rules when it’s to their advantage, while at other times, they bend and break the rules to achieve their goals. When capable, they also try to rewrite the rules and reshape the world according to their own requirements.
John Demers, assistant attorney general of the National Security Division of the U.S. Department of Justice, testified that the CCP’s Made in China 2025 plan, while on the surface aimed at improving innovation, is essentially a handbook for what to steal. He disclosed that from 2011 to 2018, over 90 percent of the cases of economic espionage allegedly involving or benefiting a country were related to China (that is, the CCP), and that over two-thirds of the trade-secret theft cases are connected to China (again, meaning the CCP).
In the previous section, we discussed the CCP’s hacking companies and inducing personnel to steal Western intellectual property. In fact, the CCP’s espionage is far from limited to intellectual property.
The CCP controls all major private companies in China and uses these nominal “private enterprises” for international intelligence gathering. Ted Cruz, the U.S. senator from Texas, said Huawei was a “Communist Party spy agency thinly veiled as a telecom company.” “Its surveillance networks span the globe and its clients are rogue regimes such as Iran, Syria, North Korea, and Cuba. The arrest of Huawei’s CFO Wanzhou Meng in Canada is both an opportunity and a challenge,” he wrote.
According to a survey released in January 2018 by the French newspaper Le Monde, confidential information from the African Union (AU) headquarters in Ethiopia was sent to Shanghai every night for five years. The CCP was accused of being behind the hack. A report released by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) on July 13 revealed that Huawei is a provider of some network-technology infrastructure at the AU headquarters building.
André Ken Jakobsson, a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Military Studies in Copenhagen, said: “What is worrying is that the CCP can get very critical and sensitive information. They can enter a system that controls our entire society. Everything will be connected to the 5G network in the future. We are worried that the country that provides such equipment — China [the CCP] — controls the switch.”
In China, the CCP uses cameras, computer networks, and artificial intelligence equipped with face-recognition technology to create a ubiquitous monitoring network. If it is not stopped, the situation prevailing in China today is likely to spread around the world tomorrow.
At the same time, the CCP has used hackers on a large scale. As early as 1999, the CCP’s hackers disguised themselves as a Falun Gong overseas website and attacked the U.S. Department of Transportation. The Department contacted the Falun Gong website to clarify the facts. Then the relevant personnel traced back and found that the real hacker came from an intelligence agency run by the Party.
In June 2015, the U.S. federal government was invaded by CCP hackers who stole a large amount of confidential information — the information of more than 21.5 million Americans. Affected people included 19.7 million government employees and 1.8 million family members of these government employees.
In November 2018, Marriott International announced that private information, including passports, of up to 500 million guests was attacked by hackers, dating back to 2014. U.S. Secretary of State Michael Pompeo confirmed on December 12 that the hacking was carried out by the CCP. Marriott is the largest hotel supplier to the U.S. government and military.
e. Unrestricted Warfare Takes Many Forms
The CCP also fully utilizes other unrestricted warfare methods. A few major areas are listed below.
Diplomatic Unrestricted Warfare
The CCP’s typical diplomatic method is to divide and conquer. When the world criticizes the CCP for its human rights abuses, the CCP invites each country to discuss human rights separately. While many countries have discussed human rights issues with the CCP in private, doing so has no restraining effect on the Party. It simply delays and argues with the various countries individually, but never makes any substantial changes. Moreover, it has virtually disintegrated the international norms that safeguard human rights. The CCP used this method to escape condemnations and sanctions, and then immediately joined the World Trade Organization (WTO). Right away, it started to use economic means to tempt various countries, and then again used divide-and-conquer to achieve large-scale breakthroughs in various areas.
The CCP also uses rogue tactics of hostage diplomacy to arrest and and threaten both Chinese and non-Chinese until their demands are met. Before the CCP was granted Permanent Normal Trade Relations status with the United States, it arrested dissidents before almost every negotiation session, and then used the release of the dissidents during the negotiations to achieve its goals. The Communist Party disregards the rights and lives of its own people, but it knows that Western society cares about issues like basic human rights. Therefore, it uses its own citizens as hostages, puts a knife to the neck of the Chinese people, and uses them to threaten the enemy — the United States. This truly reflects the CCP’s practice of unrestricted warfare.
With the rapid development of the economy, the CCP has become bolder, and foreign hostages have become diplomatic pawns. The aforementioned Su Bin was accused by the United States of hacking into a U.S. military database in 2014. Subsequently, the Canadian couple Kevin and Julia Garratt were arrested by the CCP and accused of espionage.
After the arrest of Huawei’s vice president and chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou in Vancouver on December 1, 2018, a series of protests were triggered by the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The CCP’s consulate in Canada mobilized a large number of pro-communist overseas Chinese to protest. In addition, the CCP arrested three Canadian citizens in retaliation. This was both to put direct pressure on Canada and also to drive a wedge between Canada and the United States.
Lawlessness is the CCP’s modus operandi. Any foreigner in China may become a hostage at any time and be used as a bargaining chip for political, economic, and diplomatic purposes. Moreover, when the CCP threatens overseas Chinese, especially dissidents, it often uses relatives of these dissidents in China as hostages.
Unrestricted Military Warfare
The CCP has developed asymmetric weapons, such as anti-ship missiles and anti-aircraft carrier missiles. In terms of conventional weapons, the CCP has attempted to surpass the technological supremacy of the United States by having a larger quantity of matériel targeting those prize assets. The CCP has grown economically and technically, giving it greater operational space to implement cyberwarfare, outer-space warfare, and other unconventional high-tech attack vectors against the United States, as addressed in the last section.
The PLA publicly declares that the conduct of the kind of war it wishes for would “appear in a manner that is cross-national, cross-domain, and utilizes any means necessary.” In the PLA’s ideal war, “tangible national boundaries, intangible cyberspace, international law, national law, codes of conduct, and ethics are not binding on them [PLA forces].” “They don’t take responsibility for anyone, and are not restricted by any rules. Anyone can be a target, and any means can be used.” The authors of Unrestricted Warfare, both Chinese colonels, declare to their readers: “Have [you] considered combining the battlefield with the non-battlefield, war with non-war, military with non-military — specifically, combining stealth aircraft, cruise missiles and network killers, nuclear war, financial warfare, and terrorist attacks? Or, simply put, Schwarzkopf [Commander-in-Chief of the Gulf War Multinational Force] + Soros + Morris [creator of the Morris Worm computer virus] + bin Laden? This is our true card.”
Unrestricted Financial Warfare
The CCP has begun promoting its own financial payment system and use of the renminbi through “economic assistance” and private enterprises, in an attempt to build a global infrastructure. It intends to use the renminbi to replace the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the field of international currency circulation. According to the CCP’s unrestricted financial-warfare strategy, the regime can achieve its goals simply by printing massive amounts of money, thus destroying the financial system when necessary. CCP think tanks have advocated the weaponization of foreign exchange reserves.
Unrestricted Internet Warfare
Through the efforts of Huawei and ZTE to seize the 5G technology market, the CCP is striving to gain a dominant position in 5G standards, and wants to play a leading global role in the new technology. The former head of the Federal Reserve of Dallas said, “If China were to win the race, they would establish the protocols for the internet, just as English replaced German as the language of science and became the language of all crucial activity on a global scale.”
The internet took shape in a world in which information flows were entirely different from those of the traditional world, and the online world can in turn constrain and influence our real world. At present, the internet faces a new round of evolution, with 5G technology at its core. With the combination of 5G and artificial intelligence, the internet is moving toward “the internet of things,” or digitization of the entire world. The internet’s control over the physical world is dramatically expanding, and the rules of the entire world are being rewritten. If the CCP dominates 5G, it will be able to act unimpeded.
In addition, there is a huge amount of information flowing on the internet. Once the CCP’s external propaganda operations are successfully integrated with a China-controlled 5G, its soft-brainwashing efforts will greatly exceed the current scale and impact.
Unrestricted Narcotics Warfare
At a U.S. cabinet meeting held on August 16, 2018, President Trump said that the proliferation of opioids based on fentanyl from China is “almost a war.” In 2017, there were more than seventy thousand cases of drug overdose in the United States, of which more than 40 percent were related to synthetic opioids (mainly fentanyl and its analogues). These drugs are primarily produced in China and then enter the United States through the U.S. postal service or are smuggled into Mexico and then enter the United States through the U.S. Southwest border.
Markos Kounalakis, a senior researcher at the Central European University and a visiting scholar at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University, in November 2017 wrote of fentanyl: “It is, ultimately, a chemical. And it’s being used as a weapon in China’s 21st Century Opium War against America.” He said that fentanyl has killed thousands of Americans and cited it as an example of CCP strategy: The CCP uses the real value of this chemical as a “profitable opiate export that also destroys American communities and roils the U.S. political landscape.” 
Unrestricted Population Warfare
In September 2018, a Chinese family traveling in Sweden made a scene in a Swedish hotel by falsely claiming they were mistreated by the police. After exaggeration by the Chinese Embassy and media, Chinese people began boycotting IKEA and H&M. The Swedish TV station SVT aired a sarcastic program about the incident, which further exacerbated the situation. Tens of thousands of Chinese internet users flooded the websites of the Swedish Embassy, the TV host Jesper Rönndahl, and the TV station’s Facebook page.
After sixty years of destruction of traditional culture and its replacement with Communist Party culture, the CCP is indeed able to coerce billions of Chinese people and turn them into a mass army, merely by waving the flag of nationalism. Before the ninetieth anniversary of the People’s Liberation Army in 2017, the CCP came up with software that can add PLA uniforms to an individual in an uploaded image. In just several days, the app received over one billion visits.
The CCP is able to use nationalism to control the public because people don’t know the Party’s true history. In particular, people don’t understand the CCP’s history of killing. Thus, generations of Chinese people who grew up in the Party culture carry the Party culture with them wherever they go. When they travel abroad to make a living, they export Party culture overseas and become part of the regime’s mass overseas army.
The CCP has already successfully created a generation of people who will obey its orders without the need to be coerced or monitored. This has strengthened the CCP’s ability to control this army in the free world and use it for subversion. If a war broke out, this sort of mass population warfare could have dire consequences.
Unrestricted Cultural Warfare
The CCP has been peddling Party Culture and its values under the banner of Chinese traditional culture and customs for many years. People all over the world have a strong interest in China’s long history and rich culture, yet their understanding is very limited. The CCP knows this well and takes full advantage of it. By adopting some of the superficial forms of traditional culture, the CCP has disguised itself as the guardian and true representative of Chinese culture, making it extremely difficult for people in other countries to see through the deceit.
Other Forms of Unrestricted Warfare
The Chinese communist regime declared Asymmetrical Hybrid Warfare against the United States and its Western allies by launching its nation-state Program 863 in 1986. The ultimate goal of this warfare is to surpass the United States on the economic and military fronts, and thus replace the United States in its role as the world leader. It is a war based on deceit and complete disregard for any rules, and the strategies behind it are part of its unrestricted warfare program.
During the June 4, 1989, movement, the CCP ordered soldiers and police to disguise themselves as Beijing civilians and create riots, so the military could use them as an excuse for its mass killing, which it called “suppressing riots.” In the persecution of Falun Gong, the CCP fabricated the “self-immolation” incident to justify the ensuing escalation of the persecution. During Hong Kong’s Occupy Central With Love and Peace movement, the CCP transported people from Shenzhen to incite violence in Hong Kong, effectively forcing the police to escalate toward violence.
In the eyes of the CCP, murder and assassination are commonplace methods, and in the future, the Party may well use the same methods — poisoning, assassination, explosions, the sabotage of power grids or transportation facilities, and so on — to create chaos and conflict in the West.
The core of unrestricted warfare is about destroying the morality of mankind, and mobilizing evil people to destroy mankind step by step. The CCP is highly skilled at tempting people to go against morality and their own conscience, and those who do so often end up either passive in the face of the CCP’s abuses, or active participants. Therefore, for influential figures in the political, economic, military, media, cultural, technological, educational, and other fields, the CCP attempts all means to discover their human weaknesses — whether vested interests or desires — and uses them to make people willingly collaborate with the Party. When this doesn’t work, the CCP might use threats and intimidation to exploit their fears or mistakes, effectively blackmailing them into assisting the Party. In some cases, the CCP has even provided transplant organs obtained by killing to buy off influential figures in need of a transplant.
The resources the CCP is able to bring to bear to infiltrate other countries defy one’s imagination, and the facts uncovered at present are only the tip of the iceberg. People in all walks of life, especially in politics and business, have become the CCP’s tools in its unrestricted warfare campaign, and more evidence will surface over time showing how many have fallen into this trap. Almost all countries in the world have begun to feel the CCP’s global ambitions and its evil, unrestricted means. They’ve also seen the destructive impact of the CCP’s agents at critical moments.
4. The ‘China Model’ and Its Destructive Impact
In the past decade or so, Communist Party mouthpieces, as well as some Western scholars and journalists, have vigorously touted the concept of a “Chinese model” or similar terms, such as the “Chinese way,” the “China miracle,” or the “Beijing consensus.” The so-called China model generally refers to the CCP’s combination of political totalitarianism and crony capitalism to achieve “social stability” and rapid economic development. In fact, the essence of the “China model” is the “CCP model” — a political abomination that has never been seen before in human history.
Propaganda aimed at supporting the legitimacy of the communist “Chinese path” generally falls into these four categories: economic development, social stability, public opinion (when civilians act as submissive subjects), and international recognition.
However, all four of these arguments are untenable for those who can look at things with clear eyes. High economic growth rates cannot hide the twisted, often evil, form of economic development that the CCP takes.
The regime’s so-called economic miracle is actually the result of the energy released by the Chinese people after decades of suppression, and the partial return to normal market conditions during reform and opening up. Such growth has been achieved by the trampling of human rights, intellectual property theft, the uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources, and destruction of the natural environment. Such growth is neither ethical nor sustainable. There are numerous structural problems in the Chinese economy, none of which can be solved under the existing political system. When these problems get to the critical point, they’ll bring disasters to the Chinese people and the rest of the world.
All the CCP’s arguments are worthless. The Chinese communist regime has control over all armed forces in China and maintains stability with an iron fist and surveillance. The Party can thus indeed achieve social “stability” for a long time. The CCP monopolizes all media inside China and has nipped opposing voices in the bud. In today’s world, when morality in general has fallen down, it is not difficult to find useful idiots in the international community and have them act as friends of China and sing the praises of the CCP. It is obvious that the so-called achievements of the CCP’s China model cannot conceal the heinous crimes committed by the regime.
The CCP’s nature means that it will always set itself against traditional culture, orthodox morality, and universal values. Today’s CCP is the world’s axis of evil and the enemy of mankind. If the world cannot wake up and take action against the regime, the failure will bring disaster to the world for the following reasons.
China has a vast territory and a large population. It has become the world’s second-largest economy and from 2010, the second-largest military power with nuclear weapons. No tyrannical force historically or today has ever had such a huge economic and military power as the CCP. The CCP absorbed the most sinister and deformed elements of modern totalitarian regimes and ancient Chinese tactics as its ideology for control. Therefore, the CCP never plays by the rules, and its strategy is both deep and ruthless, often beyond the imagination and understanding of leaders and strategists in other countries. By hijacking 1.3 billion Chinese people, the CCP has presented a huge and greatly coveted market to the world, attracting foreign capital, businessmen, and politicians. It has them turn a blind eye to the CCP’s human rights abuses and evil, and in some cases, even gets them to cooperate with the CCP in its crimes.
The CCP has killed eighty million Chinese people. In recent times, it has committed countless crimes against Falun Gong practitioners, underground Christians, Tibetans, Uyghurs, dissidents, and those at the bottom of society. Once the regime collapses, it will be brought to justice and punished for all its crimes. To avoid this fate by any means necessary, the CCP chooses to go down the evil road of totalitarianism and increased persecution, refusing to step off the world stage. Like a repeat offender, the CCP is anxious to escape and will not hesitate to commit more horrific crimes to protect itself.
The Chinese Communist Party is the communist specter’s main agent in the human realm. Fated for elimination, the CCP’s existence has always been accompanied by a strong sense of crisis and fear. Driven by a sense of constant crisis, the CCP resorts to all means necessary at critical moments, taking extreme measures to keep going. Driven by this sense of crisis, the CCP regards the United States, whose role is to maintain international order, as its primary enemy, and has secretly built itself up in an attempt to replace the United States and dominate the world.
At the same time, the CCP has used a range of means to export the CCP’s model and the Communist Party’s ideology, poisoning the world. The Belt and Road (also known as One Belt, One Road) and similar projects have demonstrated the Party’s geopolitical ambitions. What is even more frightening is that the CCP is preparing for the final battle with the United States with dedication, determination, and nonstop effort.
All the CCP’s ambitions — which it pursues through soft power, hard power, and sharp power — are based on a total disregard for morality and are aimed at serving its larger ambition of destroying traditional morality and universal values. The CCP’s goal is to establish itself as an evil empire and world ruler. It aims to bring totalitarian oppression to the world — a global police state characterized by brainwashing, mind control, mass surveillance, the elimination of private ownership, official atheism, the elimination of religion and traditional culture, unrestrained carnal desires, corruption, and moral degeneration. Its aim is to drag the world into poverty and turmoil, turning men into beasts and sending mankind into an abyss of moral degradation. All this is the path arranged by the communist specter in its attempt to destroy mankind.
The CCP is a unique political regime, mechanism, and social phenomenon. Its purpose is to destroy the traditional cultures and universal values that God left for mankind. If the orthodox morality that has helped mankind survive for thousands of years is ever truly destroyed, the result will be the destruction of the entire human race. Therefore, in addition to its military, economic, scientific, and technological endeavors, the CCP is also bent on imposing its ideology of atheism and warped views of good and evil on other countries. The CCP is using a range of methods to corrupt political and media figures around the world in order to instill its Party culture into these countries. Its ultimate goal is to have these individuals influence mainstream society and help drag everyone down with the CCP. This is the true intention of the CCP’s worldwide promotion of its so-called China model.
5. Lessons Learned and the Way Out
a. The Policy of Appeasement Was a Grave Mistake
In March 2018, in an article titled “How the West Got China Wrong,” The Economist reflected on the policy that Western countries have adopted toward China, their gamble that China would head toward democracy and the market economy. It conceded that the West’s gamble has failed, that China under the CCP isn’t a market economy and on its present course, never will be one. On the contrary, the CCP treats business and trade as extensions of state power and controls them as such. It uses its monopoly on power to shape the global economy, uses money to manipulate trading partners, and punishes individuals and groups it does not agree with.
Ambitious and eager to assert its global hegemony, the CCP poses a serious threat to the world. Sadly, to this day, many countries, governments, and political figures still wish to befriend the CCP, oblivious of the danger. The relationship is illustrated by a Chinese saying: “raising the tiger cub to endanger oneself in future.”
Without the aid of the developed Western countries and the support of so many multinational corporations, high-tech giants, and large financial institutions, the CCP could not have developed from a weak economy with a regime on the verge of collapse to an indomitable axis of evil over the short span of just a few decades. It has extended its influence and is now brazenly challenging the United States in regions and domains across the world.
Michael Pillsbury, a national security expert, has argued that the West all along has held unrealistic expectations of the CCP, such as believing that it would inevitably become more democratic, that it longed for an American-style capitalist society, that it would inevitably integrate into the international social order, that US-China exchanges would bring about full cooperation, or that the hawkish elements in the CCP were weak, and so forth. Pillsbury strongly urged the U.S. government to quickly face the reality of the situation and adopt counter-measures against the CCP — or else the CCP would win.
Steve Bannon also warned: “The Chinese leadership had no intention ever of joining the rule-based international post-war liberal order. They had their own plan, and they executed that plan very rigorously.” This plan is for the CCP to use state power to control the key global industries, boldly engage in geopolitical expansion, and achieve global hegemony in technology and finance while totally disregarding the prevailing global rules of conduct.
b. Why Did the West Get China Wrong?
The West got China wrong for many reasons: the communist specter’s complex arrangements mentioned earlier, the duplicity and chameleon-like nature of the CCP, and the difficulty free societies have in differentiating China from the CCP. In addition, the West got China wrong because of pursuing short-term gain, whether by individuals, companies, or entire nations. This provided yet another opportunity for the CCP to exploit.
The morally corrupt CCP targets gaps in the morality of people in free societies, people whose pursuit of paltry short-term profit allows the CCP to infiltrate and corrupt the very foundations of these societies. If we examine in detail the policies adopted by the United States regarding the CCP, to a large extent, policies are based on considerations of short-term gain instead of the most fundamental, long-term interests of America — such as the spirit on which the country was founded.
Mankind’s glory and authority come from God and are determined by man’s moral level. The prosperity and strength bestowed on an ethnic group and nation also depend on their level of morality. Using ordinary means, man is simply incapable of negating the arrangements made by the specter. Following this logic, where the West has gone wrong becomes clear — whatever the human methods applied, ultimately they cannot succeed in rescuing people from the clutches of evil.
Many governments, large companies, and businessmen may, for a period of time, ostensibly obtain benefits from the CCP for the sacrifice of their moral principles. But in the end, they’ll lose more than they gain. Such ill-gained, superficial benefits are all poisonous. Only by not coveting immediate interests will one have a bright future.
The CCP is not a political party or regime in the normal sense. It does not represent the Chinese people. It represents the communist specter. To associate with the CCP is to associate with the devil. To be friendly with the CCP is to appease the devil, aid it, and play a role in pushing humanity toward destruction. Conversely, to push back against the CCP is to engage in the battle between good and evil. This is not a simple matter of countries fighting over national interests. It is a battle for the future of humanity.
c. What Is the Way Out?
Today, China and the world are at a crossroads. For the Chinese people, the Chinese Communist Party, which owes countless debts of blood, cannot be expected to make any real reforms. China will be better off only when free of the Communist Party. By eliminating the Communist Party, which is like a malignant tumor, China will thrive.
For people around the world, China is known as the land of an ancient civilization characterized by courtesy and righteousness. Free of the Communist Party, China will once again be a normal member of the civilized world — a nation whose human and natural resources, diverse ancient traditions, and cultural heritage will be part of the wealth of humanity.
Moving forward during times of great difficulties, more and more Chinese people are coming to realize the evil nature of CCP. With the publication of the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party in November 2014, a growing number of people began to regain their moral courage and made the decision to separate themselves from the communist specter. More than 300 million Chinese have renounced the CCP and its affiliated organizations. If the free world can support the trend of renouncing the CCP and sever all ties with the specter, the CCP will not be able to continue to act as it does globally.
The seemingly indomitable Soviet Union dissolved overnight. Though the CCP is baring its fangs globally, its dissolution could occur just as rapidly once the world recognizes its evil nature and makes the righteous choice.
The rise of the CCP results mostly from moral corruption and from people’s eyes being blinded by the pursuit of vested interests. To escape this fate, we need to summon up our moral courage, revive traditional values, and have a firm belief in the Divine.
To defeat a specter like the CCP, it is never enough to simply depend on human power. An evil specter has greater power than man, and this is the underlying cause of the CCP’s continuous expansion. However, a specter can never rival the Divine. As long as humans can stand by the Divine and abide by divine will, humans will be blessed and endowed with great power.
The CCP is the enemy of all of mankind. To resist the CCP’s ambitions is in effect to save human civilization and the future. The CCP is fated for elimination, thus rejecting the CCP means avoiding the fate of being eliminated together with it, and it means helping to save mankind itself.
1. Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, “On the Beginnings of the Chinese Communist Party,” Chapter Two, http://www.ninecommentaries.com/english-2
2. Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, Unrestricted Warfare (Beijing: The PLA’s Literature and Art Press, 1999) [喬良、王湘穗：《超限戰》 （北京：解放軍文藝出版社，1999），頁1，頁62]. [In Chinese]
3. Ibid., 6 [喬良、王湘穗：《超限戰》（北京：解放軍文藝出版社，1999），頁1，頁6]. [In Chinese]
4. Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, Unrestricted Warfare and Anti-Unrestricted Warfare: How Will Americans Counter the Chinese New Strategy? (Beijing: Changjiang Literature and Art Press, 2016) [喬良、王湘穗：《超限戰與反超限戰：中國人提出的新戰爭觀美國人如何應對》（北京：長江文藝出版社，2016]. [In Chinese]
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66. Anna Fifield, “China’s Row With Sweden Over a ‘Racist’ TV Skit Has Citizens Urging Boycotts of Ikea and H&M,” The Washington Post, September 26, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2018/09/26/chinas-row-with-sweden-over-racist-tv-skit-has-citizens-urging-boycott-ikea-hm/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.15e1b22bc530.
67. Xinmei Shen, “How China’s Army of Online Trolls Turned on Sweden,” Abacus News, September 26, 2018, https://www.abacusnews.com/digital-life/how-chinas-army-online-trolls-turned-sweden/article/2165747.
68. T. Casey Fleming, Eric L. Qualkenbush, and Anthony M. Chapa, “The Secret War Against the United States,” The Cyber Defense Review, Vol. 2, Number 3, Fall 2017, 25–32, https://cyberdefensereview.army.mil/Portals/6/Documents/CDR-FALL2017.pdf.
69. “How the West Got China Wrong,” The Economist, March 1, 2018, https://www.economist.com/leaders/2018/03/01/how-the-west-got-china-wrong.
70. Michael Pillsbury, The Hundred-Year Marathon: China’s Secret Strategy to Replace America as the Global Superpower (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2015), the Introduction.
71. Steve Bannon, “Speech at the 12th Interethnic, Interfaith Leadership Conference,” November 15, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMp8F2tL66I.