An experiment at Carnegie Mellon University shows that when people learn exactly how many times these apps share that information they act fast to limit further sharing.
In one phase of a study that evaluated the benefits of app permission managers—software that gives people control over what sensitive information their apps can access—23 smartphone users received a daily message, or “privacy nudge,” telling them how many times information such as location, contact lists, or phone call logs had been shared.
Some nudges were alarming. One notable example: “Your location has been shared 5,398 times with Facebook, Groupon, GO Launcher EX, and seven other apps in the last 14 days.”
‘Are You Kidding Me?’
In interviews, the research subjects repeatedly said the frequency of access to their personal information caught them by surprise.
“4,182 (times) – are you kidding me?” one participant asked. “It felt like I’m being followed by my own phone. It was scary. That number is too high.”
Another participant’s response: “The number (356 times) was huge, unexpected.”
“The vast majority of people have no clue about what’s going on,” says Norman Sadeh, a professor in the Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science’s Institute for Software Research.
Most smartphone users, in fact, have no way of obtaining this data about app behavior. But the study shows that when they do, they tend to act rapidly to change their privacy settings.
The study examined the efficacy of both app permission managers and privacy nudges in helping people understand and manage privacy settings.
An app permission manager allows smartphone users to decide which apps have access to personal information and sensitive functionality. The study used a permission manager for Android 4.3 called AppOps.
During the first week of the study, app behavior data was collected for 23 people as they used their own Android mobile devices. In the second week, they were given access to AppOps, and in the third and final phase they received the daily privacy nudges detailing the frequency at which their sensitive information was accessed by their apps.
Permissions and Nudges
The researchers found that app permission managers were helpful. When the participants were given access to AppOps, they collectively reviewed their app permissions 51 times and restricted 272 permissions on 76 distinct apps. Only one participant failed to review permissions.
But once the participants had set their preferences over the first few days, they stopped making changes. When they began getting the privacy nudges, however, they went back to their privacy settings and further restricted many of them. During this phase, which spanned eight days, users collectively reviewed permissions 69 times, blocking 122 additional permissions on 47 apps.
“App permission managers are better than nothing, but by themselves they aren’t sufficient,” Sadeh says. “Privacy nudges can play an important role in increasing awareness and in motivating people to review and adjust their privacy settings.”
Privacy researchers have struggled to find ways to motivate people to pay attention to online privacy, particularly for mobile devices that gather a great deal of personal information about the user.
Sadeh says when people download an Android app, they are told what information the app is permitted to access, but few pay much attention, and fewer understand the implications of those permissions.
“The fact that users respond to privacy nudges indicate that they really care about privacy, but were just unaware of how much information was being collected about them,” Sadeh says.
The AppOps software was discontinued on later versions of Android. While iPhones do have a privacy manager, it does not tell users how often their information is used or for what purpose and does not nudge users to regularly review their settings.
But privacy nudges aren’t a silver bullet either, Sadeh says. Given the new types and growing numbers of apps now in circulation, even the most diligent smartphone user is likely to be overwhelmed by the choices for privacy controls.
Sadeh says ultimately, the solution may be personalized privacy assistants—software that learns an individual’s privacy preferences and selectively engages in dialogues with users to help semi-automatically configure many of their settings.
Research along these lines is progressing. Sadeh says his own research shows that it’s possible to predict an individual’s mobile app privacy preferences with over 90 percent accuracy based on their answers to just a few privacy-related questions.
Hazim Almuhimedi, a PhD student in the Institute for Software Research, will present the findings of his research with Sadeh and other university privacy researchers at CHI 2015, the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, April 18-23 in Seoul, South Korea.
The study received support from the National Science Foundation, Google, Samsung, and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Image of man using a mobile phone via Shutterstock