WASHINGTON—The Senate confirmation hearing of Sen. Jeff Sessions, President-elect Donald Trump’s pick for Attorney General, is likely to rehash racially charged allegations that derailed his efforts to become a federal judge under the Reagan Administration.
The expected focus on Sessions’ record on race, policing and immigration comes as the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division has surged in prominence under the Obama administration.
Lawmakers and advocates expressed concern Friday that Sessions could sideline or undo those civil rights efforts, which have included wide-ranging investigations of police departments for unconstitutional practices and lawsuits meant to protect the rights of transgender individuals, black voters and the disabled.
“Given some of his past statements and his staunch opposition to immigration reform, I am very concerned about what he would do with the Civil Rights Division at the Department of Justice and want to hear what he has to say,” incoming Democratic minority leader Sen. Chuck Schumer of New York said in a statement.
Sessions’ peers on the Senate Judiciary Committee will almost certainly delve into the Alabama senator’s past statements on race at his confirmation hearing.
The panel’s top Democrat, Sen. Patrick Leahy of Vermont, hinted as much on Friday, saying the “American people deserve to learn about Senator Sessions’ record.”
Leahy voted against Sessions for a district judgeship when he last came before the Judiciary Committee in 1986.
During that hearing, Sessions was criticized for joking in the presence of an attorney with the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division that the Ku Klux Klan was “OK” until he learned they smoked marijuana. He was also said to have called a black assistant U.S. attorney “boy” and the NAACP “un-American” and “communist-inspired.”
Sessions, a former prosecutor, has said that the racially charged allegations against him have been painful to him and an unfair stain on his public reputation. He called the matter “heartbreaking” in a 2009 CNN interview and described the allegations as “false distortions.”
In defending his record, Sessions is likely to point to his vote to confirm Eric Holder as the country’s first black attorney general and to point to his sponsorship of the bipartisan Fair Sentencing Act, which repealed the mandatory minimum penalty for simple crack possession — a penalty that’s been shown to disproportionately affect black defendants.
When he was U.S. Attorney in Alabama, his office investigated the 1981 murder of Michael Donald, a black man who was kidnapped, beaten and killed by two Klansmen who hanged his body in a tree. The two men were later arrested and convicted.
And Montgomery Circuit Judge Greg Griffin, an African-American lawyer who worked in the civil litigation department under Sessions when he was attorney general, said he never saw any signs Sessions was racially insensitive
But “those incidents don’t obliterate the well-established record of hostility to civil rights enforcement in other areas,” said Wade Henderson, the president of the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights.
Sessions’ civil rights record as a prosecutor and a senator matters because, if confirmed, he would have oversight of a division that Holder has described as the Justice Department’s “crown jewel.”
Sessions himself has said a “properly exercised” Civil Rights Division “provides tremendous benefit to American citizens” but should not be used as “a sword to assert inappropriate claims that have the effect of promoting political agendas.”
He’s likely to depart significantly from the priorities of his Democratic-nominated predecessors.
The division in the last eight years has opened 24 investigations of law enforcement agencies, including police departments in Baltimore, Chicago and Ferguson, Missouri, for unconstitutional practices and has reached court-enforceable consent decrees with many of them. It sued North Carolina this year over a bathroom bill it said discriminated against transgender individuals, and has challenged voting laws in Texas, Ohio and other states that it said disenfranchised minority voters.
As attorney general for Trump, who campaigned on law and order, he’s likely to pursue fewer civil rights investigations of troubled police departments. Sessions may also elevate voter fraud as a priority, something the current Justice Department leaders see as negligible.
In the mid-1980s, Sessions was criticized over the prosecution of three civil rights activists on charges of vote tampering in Perry County, Alabama. The three activists, who included Albert Turner, a former adviser to Martin Luther King Jr., were acquitted.
During his confirmation hearing Sessions defended the case, citing evidence of absentee-ballot tampering. Democrats in Congress and civil-rights groups said it was an example of the Reagan Administration intimidating black voters.
As a senator, Sessions condemned the Justice Department in 2009 for dropping its case against the New Black Panther Party following allegations of voter intimidation outside a Philadelphia polling place, and accused the federal government of disregarding the integrity of elections.
In a Senate speech, he said the Supreme Court “has held that states can pass and enforce voter identification laws to protect the integrity of elections.”
Despite any policy differences, the Civil Rights Division is expected to continue enforcing civil rights laws, such as prosecuting police officers for egregious acts of violence against unarmed citizens.
“The challenge for an incoming administration is always to make those policy changes without making law enforcement look like a purely political undertaking,” said William Yeomans, who worked in the division for more than two decades. Otherwise, “it hurts the legitimacy of the institution.”