Greek Court Rules That Golden Dawn Party Is a Criminal Group

October 7, 2020 Updated: October 7, 2020

ATHENS, Greece—A Greek court ruled Wednesday that the far-right Golden Dawn party was operating as a criminal organization, delivering landmark guilty verdicts following a politically charged five-year trial against dozens of defendants.

Golden Dawn, founded as a neo-Nazi group in the 1980s, rose to become Greece’s third-largest party during the country’s recent financial crisis and was seen as a model for many extreme-right groups worldwide.

Thousands of people gather for a protest outside a court in Athens
Thousands of people gather for a protest outside the court where the verdict was delivered, in Athens, on Oct. 7, 2020. (Yorgos Karahalis/AP Photo)

The court ruled that seven of the 18 former party lawmakers, including party leader Nikos Michaloliakos, were guilty of leading a criminal organization. The rest were found guilty of participating in a criminal organization. In all, there were 68 defendants in a trial encompassing four cases.

Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said the verdict “ends a traumatic cycle” in the country’s public life.

“(It’s) a truly historic day for Greece, democracy, and the rule of law,” he tweeted following a televised address. “After the Greek people voted the neo-Nazi party of Golden Dawn out of Parliament in the last election, today the Greek justice system convicted its leadership of operating as a criminal organization.”

supporters of Greece's extreme right Golden Dawn raise torches
Supporters of Golden Dawn raise torches during a rally commemorating a 1996 military incident that cost the lives of three Greek navy officers and brought Greece and Turkey to the brink of war, in Athens, on Feb. 2, 2019. (Yorgos Karahalis/AP Photo)

As news of the guilty verdicts broke, cheers and celebrations erupted among at least 20,000 people at a rally outside the Athens courthouse. Some protesters threw gasoline bombs and stones at police, who responded with tear gas and water cannons.

The marathon trial had been assessing four cases rolled into one: the 2013 fatal stabbing of Greek rap singer Pavlos Fyssas, physical attacks on Egyptian fishermen in 2012, and on left-wing activists in 2013, and whether Golden Dawn was operating as a criminal organization.

A masked protester tries to damage a police vehicle
A masked protester tries to damage a police vehicle during scuffles outside the courthouse in Athens, on Oct. 7, 2020. (Yorgos Karahalis/AP Photo)

The three-member panel of judges also found Giorgos Roupakias guilty of the murder of Fyssas, prompting applause inside the courtroom and among the crowd outside. Roupakias had been accused of being a party supporter who delivered the fatal stab wounds to Fyssas. Another 15 defendants—none of them former lawmakers—were convicted as accomplices, while two were acquitted.

Leaving the courthouse, Fyssas’ mother Magda Fyssa, who had attended nearly every court session over the last five years, raised her arms and shouted: “Pavlos did it. My son!”

All five people accused of attempted murder against the fishermen were also found guilty, while the four accused of attempted murder in the attacks against left-wing activists were found guilty of the lesser charge of causing bodily harm. Of the 43 people on trial for membership of a criminal organization, 15 were acquitted and the rest found guilty.

Only 11 of the 68 defendants were present, with the rest represented by their lawyers. None of the former Golden Dawn lawmakers were in court.

“The ruling demonstrates that they were just a gang of knife-wielding thugs who took their orders from the top,” said Thanassis Kambayiannis, a lawyer representing the fishermen.

After the verdicts, defense lawyers began summations before sentencing, a process that could last several days. Those convicted of leading a criminal organization face up to 15 years in prison, and those convicted of participating face up to 10 years. Roupakias faces a life sentence.

“Today’s landmark ruling against Golden Dawn sends a clear and unequivocal message that hate crimes will no longer be tolerated,” Eva Cosse at Human Rights Watch told The Associated Press. “Victims, survivors, their families, and society as a whole have finally seen justice done.”

Security was tight at the courthouse, with around 2,000 police, drones and a police helicopter deployed.

At the crux of the case was whether the string of violent attacks could be linked to Golden Dawn’s leadership. Golden Dawn denied any direct link to the attacks and described the trial and charges against the party’s leadership as an “unprecedented conspiracy” aimed at curbing its rise in popularity.

The party elected members to the Greek parliament in four separate elections, maintaining a presence between 2012 and 2019. While distancing itself from its neo-Nazi origins, it maintained links with extreme right-wing and white supremacist groups in Europe and the United States.

By Derek Gatopoulos and Elena Becatoros