Chapter Eight, Part I: How Communism Sows Chaos in Politics (UPDATED)

Chapter Eight, Part I: How Communism Sows Chaos in Politics (UPDATED)
The Epoch Times is serializing an adaptation from the Chinese of a new book, How the Specter of Communism Is Ruling Our World, by the editorial team of the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party.

Table of Contents

1. Communism: The Politics of Humanity’s Destruction

a. The Convergence of Politics and Religion in Communist Regimes b. The Religious Character of Liberalism and Progressivism c. Contemporary Liberalism and Progressivism: Variants of Communism

2. Bringing Government Under Leftist Control
3. Hatred and Struggle: The Invariable Course of Communist Politics


Communist ideology did not fade into history with the end of the Cold War; before and after the fall of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe, subversion has spread Marxist ideas throughout the free world, and left-wing movements have taken hold in many democratically elected governments.

Superficially, the free world appears to understand the damage wrought by communism. Yet in the 170 years since the publication of The Communist Manifesto, governments around the globe have been openly or covertly influenced by Marxist theory.

Most people associate communist politics only with countries under the rule of communist parties, or where Marxist economic doctrines are openly followed. But in reality, Western leftism follows the same underlying philosophy of struggle embodied by the “traditional” communist regimes of the East. In some respects, the free world has even surpassed the self-avowed communist states when it comes to putting leftist causes into practice.

Even as America faced off with the Soviet threat during the Cold War, forms of communism found their way into almost every aspect of Western society under the guises of liberalism, progressivism, and socialism. The left wing has a strong foothold in the US political landscape and is dominant in many European countries. Thus, without bringing the Western world under its overt political control through war or violent revolution, the communist specter has co-opted the governance of Western nations by feeding social unrest, undermining traditional morality, and pushing socialist policies. Its aim is to set the West on a demonic path, bringing about the destruction of mankind.

The United States has been and remains a strong bastion of freedom and anti-communism. Given the vital role America plays on the world stage, it is crucial that we pay particular attention to communism’s influence in American politics and government.

1. Communism: The Politics of Humanity’s Destruction

For thousands of years, the main institution of political power was the monarchy, which received its authority from the divine. Heaven endowed the ruler with the divine right of kings. Emperors and kings performed a sacred role as intermediaries between man and the divine.

Today, many nations are run by democracies. In practice, democracy isn’t direct rule by the people, but rather the rule of representatives chosen by the people. The election of a president is a democratic procedure. Once in office, the president has broad powers over politics, economics, the military, foreign relations, and so on.

Since the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the drafting of the US Constitution during the following decade, democracy has been linked with freedom, prosperity, and individual rights. But the fundamental cornerstone of social stability and harmony, as well as human rights and freedom, is a society’s moral values. Democracy alone cannot guarantee that good people will be elected. As the overall moral standard of society sinks, the winning candidates may well be those who specialize in empty or inflammatory rhetoric or are prone to cronyism. The damage to a democratic society is huge when it does not make provisions for maintaining the moral standards set by the divine. The advantages of electoral representation disappear and are subsumed into mob politics that throw society into chaos and fragmentation.

a. The Convergence of Politics and Religion in Communist Regimes

Communist ideology functions like that of a cult. It forces its followers to accept its malign philosophy of struggle, submit to its political programs, and betray their conscience in carrying out the directives of the revolutionary movement or party. Communist regimes persecute religion and spirituality with the cruelest methods, so as to destroy the divine and replace traditional faith with its own atheistic religion.

The communist regimes of the East, especially that of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), are often mistakenly described as a modern form of ancient despotism. Many see the CCP as having continued the imperial system. However, traditional Chinese monarchs did not claim to define moral values. Instead, they saw themselves as acting with restraint under moral standards set by gods or Heaven. The CCP, on the other hand, monopolized the very concept of morality itself. No matter how many evils it commits, the CCP still insists that it is “great, glorious, and correct.”

Morality is set by the divine, not man. Standards of good and evil stem from divine commandment, not the ideological pretension of some political party. Monopolizing the right to define morality inevitably leads to the mixing of church and state, which, as in the case of the CCP and other communist parties, manifests as the typical features of a malicious cult.

The Communist Party enshrines Marx as its spiritual “Lord” and takes Marxism as universal truth. Communism’s promise of a heaven on earth lures its followers to lay down their lives for it. Its cult-like features include, but are not limited to, the following: inventing doctrine, crushing opposition, worshipping the leader, regarding itself as the sole source of righteousness, brainwashing and using mind control, running a tight organization that one can join but never leave, promoting violence and bloodlust, and encouraging martyrdom for the religious cause.

Communist leaders such as Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong, and Kim Il Sung all had their own cults of personality. They were the “popes” of the communist cult in their respective countries, with unquestioned authority to determine right and wrong. Whether or not they killed and lied, they were always correct, which was justified by explanations that they were motivated by a higher purpose or that they were playing the long game. The citizens of these countries were made to abandon their own understandings of moral good. Being forced to lie or do evil under the Party’s command brought people psychological and spiritual trauma.

Traditional orthodox religions teach people to be good, but the cult of communism, being built on hatred, takes the exact opposite stance. Though the Party also speaks of love, the “love” it advocates is predicated on hate. For example, proletarians are capable of class friendliness because they face a common enemy: the capitalists. In modern China, the way to show patriotism (literally “love of country” in Chinese) is to hate other countries — hate America, hate France, hate Japan, hate Korea, hate Taiwan, and hate overseas Chinese who criticize the CCP.

b. The Religious Character of Liberalism and Progressivism

Liberalism and progressivism have now become the standard of “political correctness” in the West. In fact, they have developed to the point of becoming a secular religion. Western leftists have used different labels throughout history, sometimes calling themselves “liberal” and sometimes calling themselves “progressive.” Proponents of liberalism and progressivism advocate “progress” as absolute moral good and attack any dissenting opinion as heresy. Similar to communism, atheism, evolution, and scientism, liberalism and progressivism replace the belief in God with humanist reason, effectively taking man himself to be a god. They share the same enemies as communism and blame social problems on perceived injustices or defects in the capitalist system, which they intend to subvert or overthrow. The methods of radical liberals and progressives are similar to those of communist revolutionaries. They think their cause is so important that no means are off-limits.
The quasi-religious characteristics of liberalism and progressivism are inseparable from the theories that gave rise to them. Rapid scientific progress since the eighteenth century greatly strengthened humankind’s confidence in its own ability and fueled the progressive intellectual trend. French philosopher Marquis de Condorcet, a pioneer of progressive thinking, stated in his work Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind that reason leads people to the path of happiness and morality or goodness. Following this, progressivism became more aggressive and began pushing reason onto the altar of worship.

Progressive thinking allows one to view reason, conscience, and the Creator as separate, fostering the idea that humans do not need the Creator’s salvation and can use their own rationality and conscience to sweep away the evils of greed, fear, jealousy, and the like. In this view, humans can do away with the divine and establish a paradise on earth. The arrogance of progressivism is exhibited in a statement by nineteenth-century French politician and art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary: “Beside the divine garden from which I have been expelled, I will erect a new Eden. ... At its entrance, I will set up Progress ... and I will give a flaming sword into his hand and he will say to God, ‘Thou shalt not enter here.’” [1]

Filled with this kind of thought, people entertain an illusion of controlling humanity’s destiny and manipulating its future — that is, that mankind can play God — to create a utopia, a “paradise on earth.” This is the essential idea of communism. The struggle to achieve this so-called paradise has caused a deluge of blood and misery.

c. Contemporary Liberalism and Progressivism: Variants of Communism

The Rebellion Against Classical Liberalism

Classical liberalism, working from the philosophy of natural individual rights, advocated constitutional restrictions on the power of royalty or government so as to protect personal freedom. Individual rights and dignity are divinely bestowed, while government is built by the citizens and has the express duty of protecting its people. Separation of church and state was established to prevent the government from infringing upon the thoughts and beliefs of the citizenry.

Contemporary liberalism is nothing other than the betrayal of classical liberalism in the name of “freedom” as a result of communist infiltration. On one hand, it emphasizes absolute individualism — that is, extreme indulgence in desires and disregard for morality. On the other hand, it emphasizes equality of outcome instead of equality of opportunity.

For instance, when discussing the distribution of wealth, modern liberals focus only on the needs of the recipients instead of the rights of taxpayers. When it comes to policies designed to address discrimination, they focus only on those who were historically wronged and ignore the people who become victims under these policies. In law, they obstruct the need to punish criminals for the ostensible purposes of protecting the innocent from unjust sentencing or of protecting the underprivileged, who are presumably victims of oppression. In education, they ignore the potential of talented students with the pretext of supporting and helping low achievers and those from underprivileged families. They use the excuse of free speech to lift restrictions on publishing obscene or pornographic material.

The focus of contemporary liberalism has silently evolved from advocating freedom to promoting equality. Yet it is unwilling to be termed “egalitarianism,” as this would instantly brand it as a form of communism.

John Locke, known as the father of liberalism, stated his views on religious tolerance and the separation of church and state in his “A Letter Concerning Toleration.” The main aspect of toleration as Locke envisioned it is that the state, which holds coercive power, must respect and tolerate the personal beliefs of the individual. Whether one’s belief in the path to Heaven is right or wrong is a matter to be left to divine judgment. One’s soul should be under one’s own control; the state should not use its power to impose belief or disbelief.

The tolerance that classical liberalism advocates is indeed a virtue deserving of promotion, but communism has appropriated “tolerance” as an avenue to moral corruption. Contemporary liberalism neglects the real purpose of toleration, transforming it into the absence of judgment. It developed the political concept of being “value-free,” which in truth means losing one’s moral bearings and confusing good with bad and virtue with evil. It uses an attractive phrase to open the floodgates to an onslaught of demonic concepts, pushing anti-morality and anti-tradition under the guise of freedom.

For example, now tolerance is often taken to mean the disproportionate defense of the LGBT movement, a typical manifestation of the value-free concept. Anyone who speaks out against the promotion of LGBT lifestyles risks being attacked under the pretext of safeguarding individual freedom and equality and of fighting discrimination against a minority group.

The Essence of Progressivism: Moral Relativism

Guided by humanity’s traditional values, it is normal to use our intelligence to improve our living conditions, increase wealth, and reach new heights of culture. In the “progressive era” of American history from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, government reforms corrected various corrupt practices that arose in the process of economic and societal development. But after communists infiltrated the United States, they hijacked terms such as “progress” and “progressivism” and infused them with their deleterious ideology. It was only logical for communism to have hijacked progressivism, though this was unbeknownst to most people. Modern-day progressivism is the direct application of Darwin’s theories of evolution in social science, with the result being continuous deviation and perversion of traditional morality in the name of “progress.” Even today, communism continues its open deception under the progressive banner.

During this progressive revolution, atheists viewed traditional morality as a hindrance to progress and demanded a reevaluation of all moral standards. They denied the existence of absolute moral standards and used society, culture, history, and present-day conditions to establish their system of relative morality.

Moral relativism is a core aspect of Marxist ideology. It holds that whatever conforms to the interests of the proletariat (the Marxist ruling class, in essence) is moral, while whatever does not conform is immoral. Morality is not used to restrict the actions of the proletariat, but as a weapon for the dictatorship of the proletariat to use against its enemies. In tandem with the progressive movement, this moral relativism has gained influence in politics, education, culture, and other aspects of Western society.

It is not wrong for people to seek happiness and progress, but when certain “-isms” begin to supplant traditional moral values and beliefs, they act as the tools with which the communist specter leads people toward degeneracy and destruction.

2. Bringing Government Under Leftist Control

In The Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels list ten measures by which to destroy fair exchange and the rights of the individual, which they call capitalism. Many of these measures are already being implemented to move the United States and other countries progressively to the left and eventually establish communist political control, such as the implementation of “a heavy progressive or graduated income tax” and the “centralization of credit in the hands of the state, by means of a national bank with state capital and an exclusive monopoly.” On the surface, communists seem to advocate some positive things, such as the end of child factory labor and the creation of a free public education system; however, their goal isn’t to ensure a nation’s welfare, but rather to seize and maintain political power. Marx and Engels wrote:

The first step in the revolution by the working class is to raise the proletariat to the position of ruling class to win the battle of democracy.

The proletariat will use its political supremacy to wrest, by degree, all capital from the bourgeoisie, to centralize all instruments of production in the hands of the State, i.e., of the proletariat organized as the ruling class; and to increase the total productive forces as rapidly as possible.
Of course, in the beginning, this cannot be effected except by means of despotic inroads on the rights of property, and on the conditions of bourgeois production; by means of measures, therefore, which appear economically insufficient and untenable, but which, in the course of the movement, outstrip themselves, necessitate further inroads upon the old social order, and are unavoidable as a means of entirely revolutionizing the mode of production. [2]

In America, the Left has spent decades fighting Marx’s “battle of democracy” in order to control the levers of power and introduce socialism. Thus, while overt communist influences in the United States were relatively few during the twentieth century, the situation has since changed drastically.

In the 2016 and 2020 US elections, an openly socialist candidate came within reach of the presidency. Socialism, which, in communist vocabulary, is the “primary stage” of communism, was once viewed with scorn by most Americans. The candidate himself said that he thinks there are a lot of people who get very nervous when they hear the word “socialist.”

However, surveys conducted throughout the 2010s showed that roughly half those born in the millennial generation (between 1980 and 1996) had a positive view of socialism. A 2018 Gallup poll showed that 57 percent of Democrats said they had a positive opinion toward socialism. [3] This continues a trend stemming from a 2011 poll by the Pew Research Center that showed 49 percent of US adults under the age of thirty viewed socialism positively, while 46 percent had a positive view of capitalism. [4]

The illusions that many in the West hold about socialism today mirror the experiences of countless impressionable young people who embraced communism in the last century in the Soviet Union, China, and elsewhere. Those belonging to the younger generation lack a deep understanding of their own history, culture, and traditions. Their resistance to socialism, which to them looks mild and humane, is nonexistent. The great communist deception of the twentieth century is repeating itself in the twenty-first.

Marx’s axiom “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need” is quite effective for deceiving the young, who fantasize about a life of generous socialist welfare as seen in various parts of Europe. However, these countries’ welfare systems have caused many social problems. As American economist Milton Friedman said: “A society that puts equality — in the sense of equality of outcome — ahead of freedom will end up with neither equality nor freedom. ... On the other hand, a society that puts freedom first will, as a happy by-product, end up with both greater freedom and greater equality.” [5]

High-welfare socialism promotes the continuous expansion of government and leads people to vote away their freedoms. It is an important step in the specter’s plans for enslaving humanity. When all or most countries make the transition to socialism, it takes but a few simple steps to replace democracy with totalitarianism. Once the socialist primary stage is completed, political leaders will immediately implement communism. Private property and the democratic process will be abolished. The welfare state will metamorphose into a yoke of tyranny.

To enter the political mainstream in the United States, communists must infiltrate one or both of the two major parties and use them to take control of congressional votes. Meanwhile, communist candidates must take up key positions in the government and the courts. The extent to which communism has subverted US politics is quite severe. In order to secure a stable voting block, US leftist parties have magnified the animosity between low- and high-income groups, while attracting an increasing number of immigrants and “vulnerable” groups such as the LGBT community, women, minorities, and so on.

A billionaire with a history of supporting left-wing movements has heavily funded leftist candidates to run for president of the United States and other important positions across the country. Key among these have been the secretaries of state, who, in many states, are responsible for electoral affairs and play a critical role in resolving disputes. The billionaire has dedicated much aid to the campaigns for these positions. [6]

Even when illegal immigrants commit crimes on US soil, leftist authorities turn a blind eye and set up sanctuaries to protect them from law enforcement. Additionally, left-wing parties have fought for the voting rights of illegal immigrants. Of course, the motive isn’t necessarily to benefit the illegal immigrants or the general population, but to bolster the Left’s voter base. On September 12, 2017, a city near Washington, DC, passed a bill to grant noncitizens the right to vote in local elections, including green card holders, temporary residents on student and work visas, and even those with no documentation of legal immigration status. It attracted widespread media attention for its potential effects on the electoral system in other parts of the country. [7]

The administration of the 44th US president was heavily infiltrated by communists and socialists. Many groups that supported that president had clear links to socialist organizations. The president himself granted amnesty to almost one million illegal immigrants via an executive order, after legislation to do so failed to pass Congress. This former president is a follower of the para-Marxist Saul Alinsky. Following his election, he appointed advisers from far-left think tanks and brought in a universal health care system that fined those who refused to enroll in it. He furthered leftist aims by ceasing the enforcement of federal laws against marijuana, supporting the legalization of gay marriage, allowing transsexuals to join the army, and so on. In 2016, his administration issued a directive to public schools to allow students who identified as transgender to enter the bathrooms of their chosen gender, regardless of their physical sex — in other words, boys and men could enter girls’ bathrooms simply by identifying as female, and vice versa. Schools were told that if they refused to implement the bill, they would lose federal funding. In response, a coalition of thirteen states sued the federal government, arguing that the directive was unconstitutional.

3. Hatred and Struggle: The Invariable Course of Communist Politics

Struggle and hatred lie at the core of communist politics. Turning people against each other by sowing hatred and division is the primary means by which communism corrupts society, overturns its morality, and usurps political power to establish its dictatorship.

In 1926, Mao wrote in his article “Analysis of Classes in Chinese Society”: “Who are our enemies? Who are our friends? This is a question of the first importance for the revolution.” The Communist Party arbitrarily creates concepts of class where none previously existed and then incites these arbitrarily divided groups to struggle against each other. This is a magical weapon the communists use in their rise to power. [8] To promote its cause, the Communist Party selects and exaggerates certain issues that stem from the decline in moral values. Then it claims that the root cause of these issues is not moral weakness, but rather the structure of society. It singles out particular classes as the “oppressors” and promotes popular struggle against these classes as being the solution to society’s ills.

The hatred and struggle of communist politics are not limited to the antagonism between workers and capitalists. Cuban communist leader Fidel Castro said that the enemy of the Cuban people was the corruption of former President Fulgencio Batista and his supporters and that supposed oppression by large plantation owners was the source of inequality and injustice. The Communist Party promises that by overthrowing the so-called oppressors, an egalitarian utopia can be created. Castro and his fellow revolutionaries used this promise to take over Cuba.

In China, Mao’s innovation was to promise the peasants ownership of the land they worked on, the workers ownership of their factories, and the intellectuals freedom, peace, and democracy. This turned peasants against landlords, workers against capitalists, and intellectuals against the government, allowing the Chinese Communist Party to seize power.

In Algeria, communist leader Ahmed Ben Bella stirred up hatred between different religions and ethnic groups: Muslims against Christians, and the Arabs against the French. This became Ben Bella’s springboard to secure communist rule.

The Founding Fathers of the United States built the country on the principles outlined in the Constitution. Family, church, and community formed strong bonds across American society, which became ever more prosperous throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The success of the American Dream de-emphasized concepts of social class and made it difficult to concoct class struggle in the United States.

But communism uses whatever opportunity it can to promote division. Using labor unions, it magnifies conflicts between employees and employers. It uses racial divides to foment struggle between different groups. It promotes the women’s rights movement to foment struggle against the traditional social structure. It creates divisions around sexual orientation, using the LGBT movement. It divides the believers of different religions and uses “cultural diversity” to challenge traditional Western culture and heritage. It divides people of different nationalities by pushing for the “rights” of illegal immigrants and creating conflicts between foreigners and citizens. It pits illegal immigrants and the general public against law enforcement officers.

As society becomes increasingly atomized, a single misstep can trigger a struggle. The seeds of hatred have been planted in the hearts of the masses, and this is precisely the sinister aim of communism. Lenin is widely quoted as saying, “We can and must write in a language which sows among the masses hate, revulsion, scorn and the like toward those who disagree with us.” [9] The political tactics used in the West employ all sorts of “social justice” issues to incite hatred and intensify social conflict.

In the 1931 Scottsboro Boys case, nine black boys were accused of raping two white women, triggering severe racial discord across the country. The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) sprang into action, using the incident to attract many new followers, including Frank Marshall Davis, future mentor to the 44th president. The goal of the American communists in the Scottsboro Boys case was not merely to boost Party membership among the black population and progressive “social justice” activists, but to vilify America as a country rife with inequality and racial discrimination. Claiming that these were the prevailing conditions throughout the entire country, they promoted communism and leftist ideology as the only means of liberating Americans from this supposedly pathological and evil system.

In 1935, riots broke out in black communities in New York’s Harlem neighborhood following rumors that a black teen had been beaten to death after he was caught shoplifting. (In reality, the Puerto Rican teen had bitten a shop assistant and was himself unscathed.) The CPUSA jumped at the chance to organize protests, according to Leonard Patterson, a former Party member who had played a role in the incident. Patterson described how communists were specifically trained in Leninist tactics for instigating and inflaming conflicts, such as transforming protests into violent riots and street fighting, as well as deliberately fabricating conflict where there was none to be found. [10]

In contemporary America, communist groups have been involved in every large-scale social conflict or riot. In 1991, footage widely broadcast by the media showed Rodney King, a black resident of Los Angeles, being beaten by white police officers after a high-speed chase. The widely viewed clip cut out the first 15 seconds of footage, which showed King, a paroled felon, resisting arrest and behaving belligerently, though his vehicle companions had complied with police. The four officers involved in the incident were ultimately acquitted of criminal charges. After the verdict, a crowd of protesters outside the Los Angeles Police Department’s headquarters was about to disperse when something suddenly spurred them to riot. Someone hit the back of a passing car with a metal sign, and the protest swiftly descended into violence, with burning, smashing, and looting. [11]

When asked about the participation of communists in the incident, Los Angeles County Sheriff Sherman Block said that there was no question that the Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP) was involved in the rioting, looting, and arson. During the events, fliers circulated by various communist groups, like the RCP, the Socialist Workers Party, the Progressive Labor Party (PLP), and the CPUSA, could be found all over the streets and college campuses. One of the fliers distributed by the PLP read: “Avenge the King verdict! ... All the racist cops must pay! ... Turn the guns around! Soldiers unite with the workers!” According to a police officer in the Los Angeles Police Department, people were already handing out such fliers before the verdict was announced. [12]

Whatever the profusion of organizations that incite riots and violence in Western society today may call themselves, be it “Indivisible,” “Anti-Fascist,” “Stop Patriarchy,” “Black Lives Matter,” or “Refuse Fascism,” they are all communist groups or proponents of communist ideas. The violent Antifa group consists of people of various communist leanings, such as anarchists, socialists, liberals, social democrats, and the like. Refuse Fascism is a radical group founded by leftists including those from the Revolutionary Communist Party, USA. The group was behind many large-scale protests aiming to overturn the result of the 2016 US presidential election.

Under the guise of exercising free speech, these groups work tirelessly to provoke conflicts in Western society. To understand their real objective, one need only look at a 1943 directive by the CPUSA to its members:

When certain obstructionists (to Communism) become too irritating, label them, after suitable buildups, as fascist or Nazi or anti-Semitic and use the prestige of antifascist and tolerance organizations to discredit them. In the public mind, constantly associate those who oppose us with those names which already have a bad smell. The association will, after enough repetition, become ‘fact’ in the public mind. Members and front organizations must continually embarrass, discredit and degrade our critics. [13]

Read Next: Chapter Eight, Part II
Updated March 11, 2020


1. Jules-Antoine Castagnary, Philosophie du Salon de 1857, as quoted in Franklin L. Baumer, Modern European Thought: Continuity and Change in Ideas, 1600–1950 (New York: Macmillan, 1977), 335.
2. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, “Manifesto of the Communist Party,” in Marx & Engels Selected Works, trans. Samuel Moore, ed. Andy Blunden, vol. 1, chap. 2, Marxists Internet Archive, accessed April 17, 2020,
3. Frank Newport, “Democrats More Positive About Socialism Than Capitalism,” Gallup, August 13, 2018,
4. “Little Change in Public’s Response to ’Capitalism,’ ’Socialism,’” Pew Research Center, December 28, 2011,

5. Milton Friedman, Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (Boston: Mariner Books, 1990), 148.

6. Matthew Vadum, “Soros Election-Rigging Scheme Collapses: The Secretary of State Project’s death is a victory for conservatives,” FrontPage Mag, July 30, 2012,
8. Mao Zedong, “Analysis of the Classes in Chinese Society,” in Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung: Vol. 1, Marxists Internet Archive, accessed April 17, 2020,

9. Bilveer Singh, Quest for Political Power: Communist Subversion and Militancy in Singapore (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish International [Asia] Pte Ltd, 2015).

10. Leonard Patterson, “I Trained in Moscow for Black Revolution,” Speakers Bureau of the John Birch Society, YouTube video, posted by Swamp Yankee, August 20, 2011,
11. William F. Jasper, “Anarchy in Los Angeles: Who Fanned the Flames, and Why?” The New American, June 15, 1992,

12. Ibid.

13. US Congress, House, Committee on Un-American Activities, Soviet Total War, ‘Historic Mission’ of Violence and Deceit (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1956).