The crash killed three people and injured dozens of others.
Justin Ruddell of Klamath Falls, Oregon, says he was in a bathroom when the train car suddenly derailed.
He said the car burst open and he could see the rocks and gravel of the trackbed.
Ruddell said he suffered two broken vertebrae in his back and five broken ribs.
Ruddell is among at least seven passengers who have filed lawsuits through an Illinois law firm against Amtrak and BNSF Railway.
The lawsuits allege negligence against Amtrak and BNSF Railway in failing to prevent the derailment.
The lawsuits also challenge a mandatory arbitration agreement Amtrak instituted in 2019 that would prevent claims from going to trial.
Amtrak and BNSF have declined to comment on pending litigation.