Using the Marshmallow Test to Predict Jail Time
When was the last time you said, “Let’s roast some marshmallows”? Since I’m not sweet 16, it was a lot of moons ago for me. Now a report from Stanford University shows marshmallows are good for more than enjoying around a fire.
It seems how you handle a marshmallow can reveal how you handle other things later in life. In fact, it may even decide if you end up in jail.
Walter Mischel, professor of psychology at Stanford University, carried out a number of interesting experiments on marshmallows. He tested 653 young children 4 years of age who all loved marshmallows.
The 4-year-olds were placed one at a time in a single room containing only a desk and chair. The children were each given a marshmallow and told they could either eat the marshmallow right away, or if they waited for 15 minutes without eating it, they would be given a second marshmallow.
A video showed how they struggled to delay instant gratification. Some kept looking at the marshmallow or touched it and then sucked their finger. Others made a series of facial expressions, wondering what to do. Still others buried their heads in their hands or peaked out of one eye looking at it, kicked the desk, or tugged on their pigtails.
Mischel reports, “A few of the kids ate the marshmallow right away.” Only 30 percent found a way to resist the temptation and received their second marshmallow.
The initial purpose of the experiment was to determine how a child’s mental processes would allow some to delay instant gratification and to study why some children could wait for a second marshmallow.
But the goal of the study was expanded several years later. Mischel decided to track down many of the 653 children who had participated in the earlier study. The purpose was to find out if there was any correlation between those who quickly ate the marshmallow and those who delayed doing so.
Mischel’s questionnaire included every human trait he could think of, such as the ability to plan ahead, how they got along with their peers, or whether they had a criminal record. He also requested their SAT scores.
So what did he find? He discovered that those who quickly ate the marshmallow were more likely to suffer from behavioral problems both in the home and at school. They had trouble paying attention, struggled in stressful situations, and found it difficult to maintain friendships. And they had an increased chance of having a weight problem, trouble with drugs, and being convicted of a crime.
Those children who could wait for 15 minutes had an SAT score that was, on average, 210 points higher than children who could wait only 30 seconds. They were also more likely to come from high-income families, save for their retirement, and study rather than watch TV.
Mischel’s experiment concluded that all the children wanted the marshmallow, so what determined self-control? He says the key was to avoid thinking about it in the first place. So the successful children avoided staring at the tempting marshmallow, sang songs from “Sesame Street,” or otherwise busied themselves.
Mischel says adults do the same thing to outsmart their shortcomings. For instance, Odysseus knew he couldn’t resist the sirens’ song, so he tied himself to the ship’s mast.
Mischel’s advice for the rest of us is that the best way to avoid the sirens’ song is to avoid it. And what we call willpower has nothing to do with the will.
One U.S. school, KIPP Academy in Philadelphia, reminds its students that self-control is one of the fundamental character strengths. To stress this point, they receive a shirt emblazoned with the slogan “Don’t eat the marshmallows.”
Today, the lack of self-control and the need for instant gratification has caused much of the world’s economic, financial, and social woes. Maybe it’s time for parents to conduct the marshmallow test on their children. And to ensure a better world, it’s time to provide marshmallows to politicians who believe that taxpayers’ money grows on trees.