Zahra Bahrami, 45, was hanged for trafficking drugs, according to Iranian media.
But the International Campaign For Human Rights in Iran suggests that the drug-trafficking charges are false.
Bahrami was initially arrested during street protests in 2009 against the Iranian leadership, and was not accused of drug trafficking until later, according to the rights group.
Dutch Foreign Minister Uri Rosenthal called the execution a “shameful act by a barbaric regime,” according to Dutch media.
Rosenthal had been informed Friday by Iran's ambassador that the court process against Bahrami had not yet concluded, according to Dutch newspaper de Volkskrant. The execution was carried out the following day.
In response, Iran’s foreign ministry summoned the Dutch ambassador in Iran on Sunday over the “the meddlesome remarks” by the Dutch foreign minister, according to Iranian state-run news channel Press TV.