Many people think that life expectancy is largely determined by genetics.
However, genes play a much smaller role than originally believed. It turns out that environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle are key.
Here are 13 habits linked to a long life.
1. Avoid Overeating
Animal studies suggest that a 10 to 50 percent reduction in normal calorie intake may increase maximum lifespan.
That said, long-term calorie restriction to too great a degree is often unsustainable and can include negative side effects, such as increased hunger, low body temperature, and a diminished sex drive.
Whether calorie restriction slows aging or extends your lifespan is not yet fully understood.
2. Eat More Nuts
Nuts are nutritional powerhouses.
They’re rich in protein, fiber, antioxidants, and beneficial plant compounds. What’s more, they’re a great source of several vitamins and minerals, such as copper, magnesium, potassium, folate, niacin, and vitamins B6 and E.
One study found that people who consumed at least three servings of nuts per week had a 39 percent lower risk of premature death.
Similarly, two recent reviews including over 350,000 people noted that those who ate nuts had up to a 27 percent lower risk of dying during the study period—with the greatest reductions seen in those who ate one serving of nuts per day.
3. Try Out Turmeric
When it comes to anti-aging strategies, turmeric is a great option. That’s because this spice contains a potent bioactive compound called curcumin.
However, these findings have not always been replicated, and no human studies are currently available.
Nevertheless, turmeric has been consumed for thousands of years in India and is generally considered safe.
4. Eat Plant Foods
These effects are attributed to plant foods’ nutrients and antioxidants, which include polyphenols, carotenoids, folate, and vitamin C.
The same studies also report a 29 to 52 percent lower risk of dying from cancer or heart, kidney, or hormone-related diseases.
Vegetarians and vegans also generally tend to be more health-conscious than meat eaters, which could at least partly explain these findings.
Overall, eating plenty of plant foods is likely to benefit health and longevity.
5. Stay Physically Active
It should come as no surprise that staying physically active can keep you healthy and add years to your life.
Furthermore, your risk of premature death may decrease by 4 percent for each additional 15 minutes of daily physical activity.
A recent review observed a 22 percent lower risk of early death in individuals who exercised—even though they worked out less than the recommended 150 minutes per week.
People who hit the 150-minute recommendation were 28 percent less likely to die early. What’s more, that number was 35 percent for those who exercised beyond this guidance.
Finally, some research links vigorous activity to a five percent greater reduction in risk compared to low—or moderate—intensity activities.
6. Don’t Smoke
Smoking is strongly linked to disease and early death.
Overall, people who smoke may lose up to 10 years of life and be three times more likely to die prematurely than those who never pick up a cigarette.
Keep in mind that it’s never too late to quit.
One study reports that individuals who quit smoking by age 35 may prolong their lives by up to 8.5 years.
Furthermore, quitting smoking in your 60s may add up to 3.7 years to your life. In fact, quitting in your 80s may still provide benefits.
7. Moderate Your Drinking
However, moderate consumption is associated with a reduced likelihood of several diseases, as well as an 18 percent decrease in your risk of premature death.
Wine is considered particularly beneficial due to its high content of polyphenol antioxidants.
Results from a 29-year study showed that men who preferred wine were 34 percent less likely to die early than those who preferred beer or spirits.
In addition, one review observed wine to be especially protective against heart disease, diabetes, neurological disorders, and metabolic syndrome.
To keep consumption moderate, it is recommended that women aim for one to two units or less per day and a maximum of seven drinks per week. Men should keep their daily intake to fewer than three units, with a maximum of 14 per week.
It’s important to note that no strong research indicates that the benefits of moderate drinking are greater than those of abstaining from alcohol.
In other words, there is no need to start drinking if you don’t usually consume alcohol.
8. Prioritize Your Happiness
A study of 180 Catholic nuns analyzed their self-reported levels of happiness when they first entered the monastery and later compared these levels to their longevity.
Those who felt happiest at 22 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to still be alive 60 years later.
Finally, a review of 35 studies showed that happy people may live up to 18 percent longer than their less happy counterparts.
9. Avoid Chronic Stress and Anxiety
Anxiety and stress may significantly decrease your lifespan.
Similarly, the risk of premature death is up to three times higher for anxious or stressed men compared to their more relaxed counterparts.
If you’re feeling stressed, laughter and optimism could be two key components of the solution.
Studies show that pessimistic individuals have a 42 percent higher risk of early death than more optimistic people. However, both laughter and a positive outlook on life can reduce stress, potentially prolonging your life.
10. Nurture Your Social Circle
Researchers report that maintaining healthy social networks can help you live up to 50 percent longer.
In fact, having just three social ties may decrease your risk of early death by more than 200 percent.
A strong social circle might also help you react less negatively to stress, perhaps further explaining the positive effect on lifespan.
Finally, one study reports that providing support to others may be more beneficial than receiving it. In addition to accepting care from your friends and family, make sure to return the favor.
11. Be More Conscientious
Conscientiousness refers to a person’s ability to be self-disciplined, organized, efficient, and goal-oriented.
Based on data from a study that followed 1,500 boys and girls into old age, kids who were considered persistent, organized, and disciplined lived 11 percent longer than their less conscientious counterparts.
Conscientious people also may have lower blood pressure and fewer psychiatric conditions, as well as a lower risk of diabetes and heart or joint problems.
This might be partly because conscientious individuals are less likely to take dangerous risks or react negatively to stress and more likely to lead successful professional lives or be responsible about their health.
Conscientiousness can be developed at any stage in life through steps as small as tidying up a desk, sticking to a work plan, or being on time.
12. Drink Coffee or Tea
Both coffee and tea are linked to a decreased risk of chronic disease.
Of course, any health benefits can be easily undone by too much sweetener or artificial flavors.
And remember that too much caffeine can also lead to anxiety and insomnia, so you may want to curb your intake to the recommended limit of 400 mg per day—around four cups of coffee.
It’s also worth noting that it generally takes six hours for caffeine’s effects to subside. Therefore, if you have trouble getting enough high-quality sleep, you may want to shift your intake to earlier in the day.
13. Develop a Good Sleeping Pattern
Sleep is crucial for regulating cell function and helping your body heal.
A recent study reports that longevity is likely linked to regular sleeping patterns, such as going to bed and waking up around the same time each day.
Sleep duration also seems to be a factor, with both too little and too much being harmful.
For instance, sleeping less than seven hours per night is linked to a 12 percent greater risk of early death while sleeping more than eight hours per night could also decrease your lifespan by up to 38 percent.
On the other hand, excessive sleep could be linked to depression, low physical activity, and undiagnosed health conditions, all of which may negatively affect your lifespan.
The Bottom Line
Longevity may seem beyond your control, but many healthy habits may lead you to a ripe, old age.
These include exercising, eating well, and getting enough sleep.
Taken together, these habits can boost your health and put you on the path to a long life.
Alina Petre is a registered dietitian with expertise in sports nutrition. She completed her nutrition undergrad in Canada and received her master’s degree in the UK. She currently calls the Netherlands home. This article was first published on Healthline.