WASHINGTON—Two U.S. B-52 bombers flew over disputed islands in the East China Sea during a training mission Tuesday, defying new territorial claims laid out by Beijing over the weekend, according to several U.S. officials.
The two unarmed bombers took off from Guam and were in the zone for less than an hour, thundering across Pacific skies during midday there, the officials said.
While the United States insisted the training mission was long-planned and was not in reaction to China’s latest declaration, it came just days after China issued a map and a new set of rules governing the zone, which includes a cluster of islands that are controlled by Japan but claimed by Beijing.
China said on Saturday that all aircraft entering the new air defense zone must notify Chinese authorities and are subject to emergency military measures if they do not identify themselves or obey Beijing’s orders. U.S. officials, however, said they have received no reaction to the bomber flights from the Chinese.
On Monday, Pentagon spokesman U.S. Army Col. Steve Warren stated clearly that the United States would not acknowledge China’s claim. “When we fly into this aerial zone we will not register a flight plan,” he said, according to Voice of America. “We will not identify our transponder, our radio frequency, and our logo.”
“American forces could just fly through there without having to do any of those things. We will continue not doing those things,” he said.
Coinciding with the U.S. flight, China sent its first aircraft carrier, the Liaoning, from Shandong Province to the South China Sea on its first cross-sea training voyage, according to Chinese state-run media Xinhua. It was escorted by two missile destroyers and two missile frigates.
Likewise, China said the deployment of its aircraft carrier, missile destroyers, and missile frigates was part of the carrier’s scheduled training.
The bomber mission underscores Washington’s immediate rejection of China’s new rules. The United States, which has hundreds of military aircraft based in the region, has said it has zero intention of complying. Japan likewise has called the zone invalid, unenforceable and dangerous, while Taiwan and South Korea, both close to the United States, also rejected it.
Japan’s two largest airlines are also refusing to comply with Chinese demands to file routes through China’s new air defense zone, in accordance with a request from the Japanese government, Reuters reported. Taiwan and South Korea’s airlines have met China’s filing requirements.
White House spokesman Josh Earnest would not specifically comment Tuesday on the military flights. But he told reporters traveling with Obama in Los Angeles, “It continues to be our view that the policy announced by the Chinese over weekend is unnecessarily inflammatory and has a destabilizing impact on the region.”
The U.S. mission took place between about midnight Monday and 3 a.m. EST, said the officials, who requested anonymity because they were not authorized to speak publicly about the flights. The flights were first reported by the Wall Street Journal.
China’s move to further assert its territorial claims over the islands is not expected to immediately spark confrontations with foreign aircraft.
Yet the move fits a pattern of putting teeth behind China’s claims and could potentially lead to dangerous encounters depending on how vigorously China enforces it—and how cautious it is when intercepting aircraft from Japan, the United States, and other countries. While enforcement is expected to start slowly, Beijing has a record of playing the long game, and analysts said they anticipate a gradual scaling-up of activity.
The declaration seems to have flopped as a foreign policy gambit. Analysts said Beijing may have miscalculated the forcefulness and speed with which its neighbors rejected its demands.
At least in the short term, the move undermines Beijing’s drive for regional influence, said Bonnie Glaser, an Asia expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C.
“It doesn’t serve Chinese interests to have tensions with so many neighbors simultaneously,” she said.
Denny Roy, a security expert at the East–West Center in Hawaii, said China’s enforcement will likely be mostly rhetorical at first.
“The Chinese can now start counting and reporting what they call Japanese violations, while arguing that the Chinese side has shown great restraint by not exercising what they will call China’s right to shoot, and arguing further that China cannot be so patient indefinitely,” Roy said.
China also faces practical difficulties deriving from gaps in its air-to-air refueling and early warning and control capabilities, presenting challenges in both detecting foreign aircraft and keeping its planes in the air, according to Greg Waldron, Asia managing editor at Flightglobal magazine in Singapore.
Despite that, Beijing has shown no sign of backing down, just as it has continued to aggressively enforce its island claims in the South China Sea over the strong protests from its neighbors.
Tensions remain high with Tokyo over islands in the East China Sea called Senkaku by Japan and Daioyu by China. The disputed islands, which Taiwan also claims, have been owned by Japan since 1895. They came under U.S. control after World War II, but were returned to Japan in 1972. They later came under private ownership and Japan purchased them from the owner in April 2012.
Chinese and Japanese coast guard ships have regularly confronted each other in waters surrounding the islands. Japan further angered Beijing last month by threatening to shoot down unmanned Chinese drones that Beijing said it plans to send on surveillance missions over the islands.
Beijing’s move was greeted rapturously by hard-line Chinese nationalists, underscoring Beijing’s need to assuage the most vocal facet of domestic public opinion. Strategically, it also serves to keep the island controversy alive in service of Beijing’s goal of forcing Tokyo to accept that the islands are in dispute—a possible first step to joint administration or unilateral Chinese control over them.
Beijing was also responding in kind to Japan’s strict enforcement of its own air defense zone in the East China Sea, said Dennis Blasko, an Asia analyst at think tank CNA’s China Security Affairs Group and a former Army attaché in Beijing.
Blasko and others said much still depends on China’s plans for implementation, but cite as a frightening precedent the 2001 collision between a U.S. surveillance plane and an overly-aggressive Chinese fighter over the South China Sea that killed the Chinese pilot and sparked a major diplomatic crisis.
June Teufel Dreyer, a China expert at the University of Miami, said she would expect Beijing to pause until overseas criticisms die down, and then engineer a diplomatic incident by warning off Japanese military aircraft without physically confronting them.
China further complicated matters by not consulting others on the protocols it expects them to follow, or the rules of engagement for Chinese pilots, said Ross Babbage, chair of Australia’s Kokoda Foundation, a security think tank.
“This is the kind of situation that clearly has the potential to escalate,” Babbage said.
Epoch Times staff member Joshua Philipp contributed to this report.