The Little Medicine Hat
The Little Medicine Hat

The baby horse stuck its hoof up in the air as if to say ‘I am not going to step in that mud.’ The little filly was born to a mare in the Catnip herd in Lantry, South Dakota. Its mother was attentive; an aunt gathered near when movement of other horses threatened the baby. Perfect in every way, the little horse had a white body, autumn haze brown shield over her left eye, dainty yet perfectly formed white legs with little pearl colored hooves. A shield formed part of her chest.

“Not one in 700 births is a medicine hat. Indian warriors believed that to ride such a horse in combat made them invulnerable to injury or death,” Karen Sussman said. We sat in a mud-spattered four-wheel drive truck looking at the little horse and its mother from a deeply rutted road. The storm passed and we were left with the gruesome task of picking up dead horses.

Large numbers of domestic cattle also tragically died. The same storm ended neighboring ranchers’ hopes to do better than break even this year. To finally turn a profit so they could make home and equipment mortgage payments next month when their cattle were shipped. This was not an aged dying where death is sad but expected. Not the occasional death from winter snows. This record storm killed thousands of animals.

An October blizzard swept down over western South Dakota. Nothing like it ever happened before. Not this early. “Look at the trees. The leaves are still green. It was 86 degrees two weeks ago. It was so hot I thought about putting the air conditioner on in the house. I said no, I’m not going to put an air conditioner on in late September,” this grandmother of 5 said. Karen is president of the International Society for the Protection of Mustangs and Burros (ISPMB).

The equine conservancy was started in 1960 by friends of Velma Johnston to support her work. Velma was more popularly known as Wild Horse Annie. The moniker started as a derisive term coined by enemies of her struggle to save wild and free roaming horses and burros. It was Wild Horse Annie’s mustering children from around the U.S. and around the world that caused Congress to pass protective legislation affording wild horses a modicum of protection from abject slaughter and cruel roundups by aircraft with gunners shooting into terrorized herds.

Karen now holds the reins to ISPMB. The non-profit organization maintains four distinct herds and many special care horses on a ranch in Lantry, SD. It’s a hard place to find. So far off the beaten tourist path that few are willing to make the 2 ½ hour drive from Rapid City to visit. The organization is totally subsistent on private donations. Its budget was pushed to the limit when last year’s western drought saw corn and sunflower crops reduced to 25% of normal yields and hay crops fail.

“In January 2012, I was paying $65 per ton for hay. By February it went to $90 a ton. I thought then, ‘How dare you ask that high a price.’ The hay farmers saw the drought coming. By March hay was still $90 a ton but the locals decided not to sell any more. I was on the phone every day trying to find hay. I bought hay for $100 a bale. It amounted to $175 a ton. By June and July I was able to buy hay in Timber Lake for $100 a bale. By August I had to buy hay from Canada for $100 a ton, Shipping was $3,000 a truckload. A truck can haul about 30 bales that weigh around 1,200 pounds each. I got all the hay from Canada until June 2013. My first six truckloads cost me the price of the hay plus $3,100 each truck for shipping. It was $210 to $220 a ton,” Karen said. The freight was exorbitant since there were no back hauls where truckers could make money on the return trip carrying freight.

“I’m worn out. I can’t do that again.” This sturdy pioneer spirit declared, exhausted. It was said in momentary desperation. We were sitting in the truck, after the blizzard passed, checking on the little medicine hat foal and her mother. “That other little baby with his mother looks good. I was worried about it as well.” There was nothing else to be said or done except drive into a deeply rutted, muddy lane to where the tractor was parked.

Jules Uses Many nearly lost his knee length rubber boot in mud as he tried to pull a foal’s body into the tractor’s loader. Two days after the blizzard began warm weather was melting the snow. The melt caused floods in the pastures. Deep mud was everywhere. Jules, a Cheyenne River Sioux tribal member, never saw anything like this before either.

“It’s like the massacre at Wounded Knee,” he said. He spit smokeless tobacco. Its sharp taste seemed to help him through the difficult day. Traditional tribal members consider wild horses sacred. They are part of their culture. Horses changed a way of life from dog people to a horse culture. These last four herds, including the rare Gila herd of Spanish mustangs, kept in family bands on the ranch in Lantry, are the few that have not been rounded up every year.

Government agencies conduct roundups of wild horses on public lands. The terrorized horses are then pushed into holding pens, sorted and separated from their families by government officials. The objective of these bureaucrats is to rid wild horses from public lands.

The loss of one ISPMB mustang is tragic. Each death takes with it the history and tradition of the first peoples of this land as well as the cowboy tradition born when vaqueros of old Mexico tamed Spanish mustangs.

The loss figures were staggering. Each tractor load took three to four foals and yearlings to the place where they were to be buried. The road to the south range was now deeply rutted. The track was so muddy it was all Jules and Karen could do to keep the tractor on the path and make it up a steep hill.

The cargo was grim. In the 14 years Karen has been conducting research on these wild herds nothing like this ever happened before. Karen’s observations reveal that, unmolested, wild horses in family groups and bands, with their band stallions, hold breeding in check. When left to nature wild horses do not over-reproduce as U.S, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) bureaucrats have been telling the U.S. Congress. Rounded up and sorted horses with only certain types and ages released again into the wild behave differently than natural wild horse herds. The BLM conducts routine roundups, part of a program to eliminate wild horses on public lands in favor of cattle leases, hunting interests as well as oil and gas exploitation.

None of this seemed very urgent at the moment. There was no hay. Karen was on her cell phone getting promises of delivery. The current price plus shipping was still very high. While summer 2013 saw plentiful harvest because of ample rainfall, ranchers were stockpiling hay as reserves for their cattle in case 2014 proved to be another drought year.

“How are my babies doing?” Karen asked Jules. She inquired about foals and horses we were able to rescue and bring into sheds. During the freezing cold their legs were massaged. Blankets were placed around them. As they recovered we tried to get them on their feet. A few of the rescued died despite brave efforts to keep them alive during the freezing nights of the blizzard. The ones that made it were doing well, a saving grace.

It was warm again. Hot almost. I took off my stocking hat, shed my coat then got rid of pants and sweater. They say you have to dress in layers in South Dakota with good reason. I finally changed back into my T-shirt and shorts. Funny looking dude in that outfit with high rubber boots. The deep muck was everywhere. Snow was melting fast. Lower pastures were already under three feet of water.

“My little medicine hat is dead…” Karen told us the next morning, “…and the tractor broke down.” While the burdens and reality of the previous two days had not yet set in, as clean up work and continual care for the herds and babies had to be done, this new tragedy struck. The beautiful little baby medicine hat succumbed.

Harsh circumstances make good neighbors. South Dakotans are resilient people. Despite their own travail having to pick up dead cattle that littered their own pastures, a neighbor came with his tractor so hay could be unloaded and the herds fed.

“I need to raise $175,000 just to buy hay to get us through the winter,” Karen said. She never repeated the lament of defeat. A lot of wild mustangs depend on her.

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  • Craig Downer

    This is so tragic! The extreme events that are being brought on by humans’ pollution of the atmosphere etc are predicted to be as and even more dire than this, that took so many of the wonderful remnant wild horses Karen Sussman and her helpers in ISPMB are so valiantly tryng to save.

  • R.T. Fitch

    Our hearts and support reach out at this time of loss…

    • Judy

      How many wild horses died from this storm? This is so tragic.

  • Pat Boats

    This is just heartbreaking. The forces of mother nature can be wicked. I am sorry to hear that the little medicine hat foal has passed. Thank you Karen Sussman and all of your helpers in the ISPMB. I hope that you get all the funds you need to feed and take care of these horses. Maybe the BLM will stop trying to play God.

  • LouieCocroft

    Even more tragic is that these Wild Horses should never have
    been removed from their Legal Herd Management Areas in the Western states,
    where they have adapted through generations. This article was written in 2009. How many more of our Wild Horses and Burros have disappeared from our public lands since then?
    What’s Left?

    As the united call to stop BLMs unchecked assault on the American mustang & burro
    continues to gain momentum, with over 180 organizations and celebrities now
    supporting a moratorium to halt any further removals until key issues can be
    resolved, here’s one more reason to demand a “cease and desist” until a full
    scale investigation can be conducted on the Wild Horse & Burro Program to
    determine what’s really left out on the range.

    Since 2001, BLM has reported removing over 80,000 wild horses and burros at an
    average of 10,000 animals per year. Despite these aggressive efforts, they
    continue to report little to no impact has been made on reining in their
    “excess” populations, a nebulous term BLM continues to define and an even more
    elusive goal they never seem able to achieve.

    Until Congress demands an independent count of the populations BLM has been reporting, both on and off the range, the evidence continues to mount that “What’s Left?” has reached critical levels of concern.

  • LouieCocroft

    The valuable work that is being done at ISPMB must continue. The very future of our Wild Horse and Burro Herds is at stake.
    The organization was incorporated in 1965 and received its 501 (c) (3)
    nonprofit status in 1968. Velma Johnston (Wild Horse Annie) became the organizations first

    From Karen Sussman, president of ISPMB (INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE
    PROTECTION OF MUSTANGS AND BURROS) (excerpts from a letter)
    “As you know, I have been in the wild horse movement for nearly thirty years now. Our
    organization has accomplished so much in our past 50 years. Our reputation is
    impeccable, not only with the BLM but with all the wild horse and burro groups
    and conservation groups in the U.S. Over the years, we have united more humane
    and wild horse groups than any other organization.”

    “BLM’s removal methods have destroyed the horses social structures which resulted in a
    severe lack of modeling to younger horses by the older and wiser horses. This
    has happened by younger and younger stallions taking over the harem bands. The
    best analogy is that the Harvard professors are no longer in charge of the
    harems which have given way to younger stallions who are the equivalent of
    grade school children.

    We have the answer as to why the fertility rates have doubled in the past 15

    “We also believe that the future of the herds on public land are at great risk for
    survival over the long term because of the breakdown in their educational
    system through the destruction of their social harems.”

    “Finally, we will share our “model management” program with the BLM. Most of the programs
    that BLM have are from ISPMB.”

    “Because of BLM’s lack of knowledge in managing wild horses, they have created a
    doubling of the fertility rates in 197 herds by their removal methods.

    BLM’s removal methods have destroyed the horses social structures which resulted
    in a severe lack of modeling to younger horses by the older and wiser horses.
    This has happened by younger and younger stallions taking over the harem bands.
    The best analogy is that the Harvard professors are no longer in charge of the
    harems which have given way to younger stallions who are the equivalent of
    grade school children”.

    This is an update from a September 2013 newsletter:


    As we complete our thirteenth year in studying the White Sands and Gila herds, two
    isolated herds, which live in similar habitat but represent two different horse
    cultures, have demonstrated much lower reproductive rates than BLM managed
    herds. Maintaining the “herd integrity” with a hands off management strategy (“minimal feasible management”) and no removals in 13 years has shown us that functional herds demonstrating strong social bonds and leadership of elder animals is key to the behavioral management of population growth..

  • LouieCocroft

    We still don’t know the fate of these Wild Horses that were captured by BLM and removed from their Legal Herd Management areas in the West. Conditions can be harsh there, too, but they have adapted through generations and they know where to find shelter from storms:
    There are two BLM holding facilities in mid South Dakota:

    Mission Ridge 1000 capacity (1007 as of Aug.2013)

    Whitehorse 400 capacity (382 as of Aug 2013)

  • Wilson Cast Away

    if they knew they get bad weather how come these people didnt make some kind of shelter for these animals to at least keep them from the winds?

  • Cat Kindsfather

    Terrible tragedy that brought a great sorrow to so many. Saddened even more so at hearing that the medicine hat foal succumbed to death as well.

    Sympathies & gratitude to all on site burying & caring for those still struggling for their lives.
    Blessings on your work & the rescued wild horses Karen Sussman.

  • Darci Hortness

    I suppose some of these horses used to be wild horses. but they breed like crazy at this “sanctuary”! and so a lot of them are products of irresponsible breeding at this “sanctuary.” these then would not be wild horses. they are born fenced in and they died fenced in. this “sanctuary” has always been irresponsible about overbreeding. They need to stop it. and also, in South Dakota, we responsible horse owners have barns/buildings for our horses. If you are going to fence them in and cause them to reproduce, you need to provide for them. this story mentions there was no hay. No hay? no shelter? what kind of horse owner does that? Not a good one in South Dakota. You need hay and you need shelter for your horses in South Dakota. there are much more responsible horse rescue and sanctuaries in SD than this one in this story. Yes it is sad that all these babies died. it’s sad they didn’t have shelter. it’s sad they were born here. born to die. fenced in. with no shelter. please support sanctuaries that provide shelter and are not irresponsible breeders.

  • Darci Hortness

    there is a photo here of the medicine hat “after the blizzard”. so why does the story say it died?

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