Laws of Physics Differ Across the Universe

By David Skoumbourdis
Epoch Times Staff
Created: November 9, 2011 Last Updated: November 9, 2011
Related articles: Science » Beyond Science
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YouTube screenshot of the known universe from the Digital Universe Atlas at the American Museum of Natural History. (The Epoch Times)

YouTube screenshot of the known universe from the Digital Universe Atlas at the American Museum of Natural History. (The Epoch Times)

Electromagnetism appears to vary with location, according to new research, which challenges one of science’s most fundamental principles that the laws of physics remain constant across the universe.

The study found that electromagnetism, one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, seems to differ across the universe. Electromagnetism is measured as the fine-structure constant and is represented by the symbol alpha.

Variation in alpha’s value was first observed a decade ago by John Webb and Victor Flambaum at Australia’s New South Wales University (UNSW) and colleagues, after analyzing observations of a large area in the sky from the Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

As part of a new international effort, the number of observations has now been doubled and the value of alpha measured in approximately 300 distant galaxies, using the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile.

“The results astonished us,” Webb said in a media release. “In one direction–from our location in the universe–alpha gets gradually weaker, yet in the opposite direction it gets gradually stronger.”

If confirmed, the discovery will have profound implications regarding our understanding of time-space as it violates one of the fundamental principles underlying Einstein’s General Relativity theory, Webb said.

“Such violations are actually expected in some more modern ‘Theories of Everything’ that try to unify all the known fundamental forces,” said Flambaum. “The smooth continuous change in alpha may also imply the universe is much larger than our observable part of it, possibly infinite.”

This research may have even wider significance.

“Another currently popular idea is that many universes exist, each having its own set of physical laws,” said Michael Murphy at Australia’s Swinburne University of Technology in the release.

“Even a slight change in the laws of nature means they weren’t ‘set in stone’ when our universe was born,” he continued. “The laws of nature you see may depend on your ‘space-time address’–when and where you happen to live in the universe.”

Webb said that the findings could also explain why the laws of nature appear to support the existence of life.

“The answer may be that other regions of the universe are not quite so favorable for life as we know it, and that the laws of physics we measure in our part of the universe are merely ‘local by-laws’, in which case it is no particular surprise to find life here,” he concluded.

The study was published in Physical Review Letters on Oct. 31.

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  • Dov

    Embarrassingly Obvious Theory Of Everything

    EOTOE, Some Implications (I)

    EOTOE is an Embarrassingly Obvious Theory Of Everything.

    In essence it states that all things in the universe, nouns and verbs objects
    and processes, originate and derive from the energy-mass dualism.

    Origin and essence of this derivation are expressed mathematically by

    E=Total[m(1+ D)] (D = distance travelled by mass since singularity)

    Which suggests that the universe cycles between two poles: singularity/all-mass
    , and maximum-expanded/nearly-all-energy.
    The “nearly” all-energy leaves behind some mass formats that begin
    consolidating by gravity, when it eventually overcomes expansion as the mass
    fueling the expansion is nearly depleted, becoming very small m multiplied by
    very large D = E .

    Thus the essence/definition of gravitation is:
    “Gravitation Is the propensity of energy reconversion to mass”.

    Gravitation is the “monotheism” and the “ genesis” of the universe.
    Singularity, at D = 0, is the very brief all-mass pole of the universe. The
    Big-Bang-inflation did not produce matter or anti-matter. It was the beginning
    of mass reconversion into energy, of increasing D fueled by decreasing m.

    The conjectured gravitons, smallest basic particles, most probably do exist,
    but must be with mass, and gravitons microclusters must “big-bang” during the
    on-going expansion at a resolution of their energy-mass superposition.

    This is rationally commonsensical, therefore it is scientifically probable.
    Inflation started with the whole universe m shattering into fragments that
    evolved into, became, the galaxy clusters. The clusters expansion is fed at a
    constant rate by m-fuel. Since expansion accelerates, since the clusters depart
    from each other at an ever increasing velocity, we learn that the rate of
    m-to-E reconversion in the universe is constant. The accelerated expansion
    derives from the ever decreasing m of each cluster.

    Thus the essence/definition of evolution, natural selection is:
    Mass formats attaining temporary augmented energy constraint in their
    successive generations, with energy drained from other mass formats, to
    temporarily postpone, survive, the reversion of their own constitutional mass
    to the pool of cosmic energy fueling the galactic clusters expansion.

    This explains why black holes and humans, in fact all mass formats, must feed
    themselves in order to survive.
    This explains that the essence of quantum mechanics of all processes is the
    detailed procession steps, the evolution details, between physical states
    ordained for natural selection.

    Thus comes to light the universe inspected progressively in greater detail.
    Science reveals the universe’s nature-scope and directing drive, followed by
    technology studying its evolution details-aspects, followed by engineering
    exploitation of the attained information. This suggests the specific weight,
    importance, of science, technology and engineering in considering of research
    or enterprise plans and implementation.

    Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

    Definitely: Dark energy and dark matter YOK! Universe’s m reconverts to  E at a constant rate…
    Universe accelerated expansion is per Newton’s motion laws, obviously…
    Also, universe physics constants should vary, probably slightly, between
    galaxies clusters due to different clusters sizes…
    Also, the clusters formed by dispersion at inflation…

    The singularity constituents must have been the smallest elementary particles.
    They may be designated gravitons, but they MUST HAVE MASS. They were born at
    the energy-mass superposition resolution, together with the fragments that
    became galaxies clusters.
    At expansion D increases, therefore m decreases, which per Newton mandates mass
    and matter acceleration. This goes on, most probably, at a constant rate of
    mass-to-energy reconversion, at an energy-mass resolution, mandated by the
    equality of both sides of the top equation.. And this resolution is, for each
    graviton, most probably in a format of a minuscule big-bang.

    This is a lesser fantasy than the dark matter and energy fantasy. Such
    mass-energy gravitons may be omnipresent within each galaxies cluster,
    maintaining each cluster as a primordial Newtonian body and being the
    fuel-driver of expansion.



    EOTOE, Some Implications (II)

    This equation describes the presently expanding universe:

    E=Total[m(1 + D)] D = distance travelled by mass since singularity

    This equation describes the future contracting universe:

    E=Total[m(1 + D)]   D = reduced contracting expansion

    The base units of mass – may be designated gravitons but MUST have mass – are
    not temporal, they never disappear.

    In the present expanding universe they are in motion as mD away from the
    singularity point.
    Those of them that hit a whatever mass format and move it become inert. This
    will go on until all or nearly all of them cease moving forward, i.e. until D
    ceases growing.

    When D ceases growing gravitation will overcome the inertial motion away from
    the singularity point and will start pulling them back towards it. It is then
    that D will start diminishing, to maintain the equation’s equality…


    The rational commonsensical, and therefore scientifically probable, implication
    is that Space is imbued with these massed gravitons that are continuously left
    behind during Expansion… also as micro clusters sized between gravitons and



    EOTOE, Some Implications (III)


    Energy = dynamic quality, the capacity of acting or being active, a fundamental
    entity of nature that is transferred between componentsts of a system in the
    production of physical change within the system and usually regarded as the
    capacity for doing work.

    Mass = Mass is the quantity of inertia possessed by an object or the proportion
    between force and acceleration referred to in Newton’s Second Law of Motion.

    Per EOTOE :

    E=Total[m(1 + D)]  D = distance travelled
    by mass since singularity

    Energy is mass in motion.

    The mass of the universe is either in motion or in the form of inert massed
    gravitons, with which the universe is imbued.

    m of the EOTOE equation is only the energetic m, the m which is in motion.

    The inert gravitons do not play a role in the E,m,D relationship. At the
    (present) universe expansion phase mass reconverts to energy at a constant
    rate, leaving behind inert gravitons. Inert gravitons become energetically
    active when they are reset in motion, i.e. when acted upon by energy, such as
    by gravity during the universe re-contraction phase.

    Dov Henis (comments from the 22nd century)



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