Blood on the Trackpads: High-Tech’s Human Cost

By Peter Certo Created: June 7, 2011 Last Updated: June 7, 2011
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HOLDING ACCOUNTABLE: A protester from Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior demonstrates outside the Foxconn annual general meeting in Hong Kong on May 18. (Mike Clarke/AFP/Getty Images)

HOLDING ACCOUNTABLE: A protester from Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior demonstrates outside the Foxconn annual general meeting in Hong Kong on May 18. (Mike Clarke/AFP/Getty Images)

It can be a peculiar and rather disquieting sensation to type on a laptop these days. As a personal computing device that is more or less portable, a laptop computer becomes an extension of the human being who hauls it about and operates it.

The capabilities of the machine are grafted onto the hardware of the user, even as its constant physical presence renders it almost an appendage. How much truer this becomes in the age of the smart phone, which is more capable, more portable, and ever more affixed to the body that uses it.

As monologist Mike Daisey tells it, “We are cyborgs already.”

But however attached we become to our devices, however much we come to employ them as extensions of our very selves, our hands are not the only ones that have handled our devices.

They have been assembled, tested, passed about by other hands as well—often by little hands, tired hands, mangled hands. While the sleek packaging of a new iPad or MacBook might suggest a divine or immaculate provenance, these and virtually all other electronic devices have been created by human hands.

Daisey, an author and performer with an eclectic body of work on politics, history, and consumerism, recently completed a four-week series of shows at Washington, D.C.’s Woolly Mammoth Theater.

“The Agony and the Ecstasy of Steve Jobs,” a two-hour monologue, traces Apple’s journey from a two-man pirate enterprise to one of the largest, most secretive tech companies in the world.

Many of the workers are children—11, 12, 13 years old.

Through careful expositions and humorous outbursts, Daisey chronicles some three decades of the company’s breakthroughs, blunders, tribulations, and triumphs, portraying the rapt attention and comically emotional investment of a true believer and often a fervent critic—portraying, in effect, himself.

Likening Apple to an abusive spouse, he equates its followers—who endure one ill-advised product line after another only to embrace the company when it redeems itself with something brilliant—to battered wives. But Daisey discovers a fascination with those members of the Apple family who are, if one can believe it, more aggrieved than its consumers.

Hands Across the Pacific

Daisey's journey begins when an iPhone user discovers photographs on his new phone, apparently left over from factory tests. Daisey’s interest is piqued. He recounts his amazement that actual human beings built the devices on which he and so many other people rely.

Dispensing with whatever illusions he had about Honda-style robots quickly and meticulously assembling our electronic devices, Daisey determines that hands remain far cheaper than machines in countries like China.

Contrary to the nostalgia of Western consumers about the demise of “handmade” products, Daisey asserts that more products are made by hand now than at any other point in history.

Maybe this is old news to more astute observers of manufacturing and global capitalism. But to apprehend a fact and to confront it are two different matters. Mike Daisey chooses the latter.

Pretending to be an American investor, Daisey actually travels to China—more specifically, to the sprawling “Special Economic Zone” of Shenzhen.

As late as 1970, Shenzhen was a small fishing village, home to no more than perhaps a few hundred residents. In 1979, Chinese authorities designated the city a Special Economic Zone, which Daisey characterizes as a space in which foreign corporations can treat their workers and their environs however they see fit—whatever it takes to deliver a “modern China.”

Today Shenzhen is a city of some 9 million people and the largest manufacturing base in the world. Decked out with towering advertising displays and imposing concrete industrial complexes, Shenzhen looks, in Daisey’s colorful characterization, “like ‘Blade Runner’ threw up on itself.”

Shenzhen is also home to the sprawling Foxconn complex, which employs over 400,000 workers who reportedly make half of all the electronic devices in the world. Foxconn’s clients include, among others, Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Microsoft, Sony, Nintendo, and, of course, Apple. The complex made news last year for a disturbing spate of worker suicides.


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